Friday, September 30, 2016

Italian - Drinks

We counted to 900 in Italian! Wow!

Let's learn how to say some things to drink.

water acqua - sounds like ah-koo-ah /?/
milk latte - sounds like lah-tay /?/
juice succo - sounds like soo-koh /?/

Goethe Institute
(from: wikipedia - Goethe Institute)

Wasser, Milch, Saft

agua, leche, jugo

eau, lait, jus

Thursday, September 29, 2016


We just learned about the Drawing Down.

Another way to work with the metal is called bending.

To bend the metal in a nice rounded shape, the blacksmith can use the horn of the anvil, use something called a bending fork into the hardy hole.
Then they hammer the metal to bend it.

(from: wikipedia - hardy tool)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tornado

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Madagascar Tree Boa

We just learned about the Black Headed Python.

Another snake is the Madagascar Tree Boa.
This is another snake that does not have venom, but attacks its prey by squishing it.

When these snakes are born they are bright red, but then turn green when they get older.
Some people think the young snakes are red so they can be protected by looking like flowers in the trees.

This snake is nocturnal, meaning it stays awake at night and hunts for food.
Even though they are called a tree boa, they usually just live on the ground.

(from: wikipedia - sanzinia madagascariensis)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Portuguese Water Dog

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Lumbar Nerves

We just learned about the Thoracic Nerves.

The next part of the nervous system by the spinal column is the Lumbar Nerves.

These nerves control all the muscles from the lower abdomen down to the legs and feet.

(from: wikipedia - )

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Inferior Venae Cavea

Monday, September 26, 2016

Kunlun Mountains

We just learned about the Tian Shan Mountains.

Another mountain range is the Kunlun Mountains in China.

There was an old legend of a paradise in these mountains, with a jade palace, an emperor and queen that had magical powers.

(from: wikipedia - kunlun mountains)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Washington D.C.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Lily Crucifix

We just learned about the Elemental Symbols of fire and water as symbols of Christianity.

Another Christian symbol is the Lily Crucifix.

This is a picture of Christ either being crucified on a lily flower, or holding a lily flower.
The white lily is sometimes used as a symbol of purity.

(from: wikipedia - christian symbolism)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Paul's Letter to the Colossians

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Gonzaga Cameo

We just learned about the Gemma Augustea.

Another ancient Roman sculpture is the Gonzaga Cameo.

Just like the Gemma Augustea, this is a cameo that is made from carving a stone.
This stone was called sardonyx, and is carved into a male and female person.

No one knows who the people were supposed to be when they were carved, but many people think they were supposed to be Zeus and Hera.

(from: wikipedia - gonzaga cameo)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Woman in Blue - Leger

Friday, September 23, 2016

Italian - Nine Hundred

We counted to 109 in Italian! Wow!

What about 200 to 900?

In Italian for the hundreds, most use the first number and then cento for hundred.
So 200 in Italian is duecento.

200 duecento - sounds like doo-ay-chen-toh/?/
300 trecento - sounds like t-day-chen-toh /?/
400 quattrocento - sounds like koo-ah-t-do-chen-toh /?/
500 cinquecento - sounds like chee-n-koo-ay-chen-toh /?/
600 seicento - sounds like say-ee-chen-toh /?/
700 settecento - sounds like say-tay-chen-toh /?/
800 ottocento - sounds like oh-toh-chen-toh /?/
900 novecento - sounds like no-vay-chen-toh /?/

Goethe Institute
(from: wikipedia - Goethe Institute)

zweihundert, dreihundert, vierhundert, fünfhundert, sechshundert, siebenhundert, achthundert, neunhundert

doscientos, trescientos, cuatrocientos, quinientos, seiscientos, sietecientos, ochocientos, novecientos

French - deux cent, trois cent, quatre cent, cinq cent, six cent, sept cent, huit cent, neuf cent

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Drawing Down

We just learned about the Slack Tub.

Another thing a blacksmith does is called Drawing Down.

If a blacksmith wants to make some metal thinner, they can hit the metal sideways with the peen hammers or fuller that we've learned about and try and keep it the same width but make it longer.

If you think of the metal like clay, and you tried to push the clay out the long way to make it thinner, that is what the blacksmith is doing with the hammer and the metal when they are drawing.

After they have spread it out with the peen hammer or fuller, they use the flat part of the hammer with the anvil to flatten out any bumps they may have made in the metal.

(from: wikipedia - blacksmith)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Snow Roller

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Black Headed Python

We just learned about the Reticulated Python.

Another type of snake is the black headed python.

This snake lives mostly in Australia, and can grow to be 11 feet long.

They have brown and black stripes, and a black head.
These snakes are not venomous, and they almost never bite so a lot of people have them as pets.

(from: wikipedia - aspidites melanocephalus)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Beagle

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Thoracic Nerves

We just learned about the Cervical Nerves in your neck.

The spinal nerves in your upper back are called the Thoracic Nerves.

There are 12 of these nerves, numbered T1 through T12.
They help control and talk to the organs in your chest, back and stomach area.

(from: wikipedia - posterior branches of thoracic nerves)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Iliac Veins

Monday, September 19, 2016

Tian Shan Mountains

We just learned about the Hengduan Mountains.

The next largest mountain range is the Tian Shan Mountains in China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.

The name means sky, or heaven.

It is one of the longest mountain ranges, and was made when the earth shifted and crashed the Indian and Eurasian earth land plates together.

The glaciers on top of the mountains have been getting smaller, and have lost over 5 billion tons of ice in the last 50 years.

(from: wikipedia - tian shan)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Wyoming

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Elemental Symbols

We just learned about the Shamrock.

Another Christian symbol is the symbol for fire or water.

Sometimes just pictures of dripping water are meant to show baptism, or pictures of fire are for when the holy spirit came down on the apostles at pentecost.

(from: wikipedia - christian symbolism)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Paul's Letter to the Phillipians

Saturday, September 17, 2016

Gemma Augustea

We just learned about the sculpture the Campana Reliefs.

Another ancient Roman sculpture is the Gemma Augustea.

This is a sculpture made out of a type of gem stone called Arabian onyx.
This type of stone has both black and white colors in it, and the gem was cut until there was white on top and black in the background.
When a stone is carved like this it is called a Cameo.

The sculptor then carved out a picture of Ceasar Augustus, surrounded by mythical Roman gods on the top row, and a bunch of workers putting up a trophy on the bottom row.

The artist was Dioscurides, who was a famous gem cutting sculptor for Caesar Augustus thousands of years ago.

(from: wikipedia - gemma augustea)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Fruit Dish on Checkered Tablecloth - Gris

Friday, September 16, 2016

Italian - One Hundred

We counted to 99 in Italian, let's keep going!

100 cento - sounds like sen-toh /?/
101 centuno - sounds like sen-too-noh /?/
102 centodue - sounds like sen-toh-doo-ay /?/
103 centotre - sounds like sen-toh-t-day /?/
104 centoquattro - sounds like sen-toh-koo-ah-t-doh /?/
105 centocinque - sounds like sen-toh-chee-n-koo-ay /?/
106 centosei - sounds like sen-toh-say-ee /?/
107 centosette - sounds like sen-toh-say-tay /?/
108 sentotto - sounds like sen-toh-toh /?/
109 sentonove - sounds like sen-toh-noh-vay /?/

Goethe Institute
(from: wikipedia - Goethe Institute)

: einhundert, einhunderteins, einhundertzwei, einhundertdrei, einhundertvier, einhundertfünf, einhundertsechs, einhundertsieben, einhundertacht, einhundertneun

ciento, ciento uno, ciento dos, ciento tres, ciento cuatro, ciento cinco, ciento seis, ciento siete, ciento ocho, ciento nueve

cent, cent, cent deux, cent trois, cent quatre, cent cinq, cent six, cent sept, cent huit

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Slack Tub

We just learned about the Fuller.

Another part of a blacksmith's forge is the slack tub.
This is the large tub of water that the blacksmith dips the metal in to cool it off.

If there is a part of the metal that the blacksmith does not want to get shaped, they can cool it down, and then only the hot part will be shaped.

For blade making, like swords or knives, the blacskmith uses oil instead of water.

(from: wikipedia - forge)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Blizzard

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Reticulated Python

We just learned about the Bushmaster.

Another snake is the Reticulated Python.

At over 21 feet long they are the longest snake and longest reptile in the world.

They are the third heaviest snake in the world, at over 165 lbs.

These snakes live in southeast Asia, and are very good swimmers.
They have even gone from island to island swimming in the ocean.

(from: wikipedia - reticulated python)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Great Pyrenees Mountain Dog

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Cervical Nerves

We just learned about the Dorsal Root.

The spinal nerves that that go up and down your spinal cord are split up by what section they are in.
The top section of spinal nerves between your head and your shoulders are called the cervical nerves.
There are 8 cervical spinal nerves, called C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8.

These nerves help control the muscles in your neck and your tongue.

(from: wikipedia - cervical spinal nerve 1)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Femoral Vein

Monday, September 12, 2016

Hengduan Mountains

We just learned about the Pamir Mountains.

The next largest mountain range is the Hangduan Mountains in China.

Three of the great rivers in China run through this mountain range, the Yangtze, Mekong and Salween.
These mountains are also a home to the giant panda.

(from: wikipedia - hengduan mountains)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Wisconsin

Sunday, September 11, 2016


We just learned about the Christian symbol of the anchor.

Another symbol is the shamrock.

This is a three leaf clover, and is used sometimes to mean God, Jesus and the Holy spirit.

(from: wikipedia - christian symbolism)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Paul's Letter to the Ephesians

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Campana Reliefs

We just learned about the Arch of Constantine.

Another bunch of ancient Roman sculptures are the Campana Reliefs.

These were small art tiles that were at the top of walls below the roof.
They are terracotta reliefs.
Terracotta is clay that was baked and cooled when it hardened.
A relief is a sculpture that is connected to the background.

(from: wikipedia - campana reliefs)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Houses at L'Estaque - Braque

Friday, September 9, 2016

Italian - Counting to ninety nine

We counted to 89 in Italian, let's keep going!

90 novanta - sounds like no-vah-n-tah /?/
91 novantuno - sounds like no-vah-n-too-no /?/
92 novantadoue - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-doo-ay /?/
93 novantatre - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-t-day /?/
94 novantaquattro - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-koo-ah-t-doh /?/
95 novantacinque - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-chee-n-koo-ay /?/
96 novantasei - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-say-ee /?/
97 novantasette - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-say-tay /?/
98 novantotto - sounds like no-vah-n-toh-toh /?/
99 novantanove - sounds like no-vah-n-tah-no-vay /?/

Goethe Institute
(from: wikipedia - Goethe Institute)

neunzig, einundneunzig, zweiundneunzig, dreiundneunzig, vierundneunzig, fünfundneunzig, sechsundneunzig, siebenundneunzig, achtundneunzig, neunundneunzig

noventa, noventa y uno, noventa y dos, noventa y tres, noventa y cuatro, noventa y cinco, noventa y seis, noventa y siete, noventa y ocho, noventa y nueve

quatre-vingts dix, quatre-vingt onze, quatre-vingt douze, quatre-vingt treize, quatre-vingt quatorze, quatre-vingt quinze, quatre-vingt seize, quatre-vingt dix sept, quatre-vingt dix huit, quatre-vingt dix neuf

Thursday, September 8, 2016


We just learned about the Tongs.

Another blacksmithing tool is the fuller.

This type of tool is a long tool like a bar that has a rounded edge on one side.
There are two types of tools, an upper fuller or lower fuller.

The upper fuller is like a bar that is placed on top of the hot metal.
It has a handle that the blacksmith holds onto while hitting the top of the fuller, and the rounded part of the fuller spreads out the metal as it is pushed down into it.

The lower fuller goes underneath the metal by the anvil, and sits into the hardy hole while the blacksmith hits the metal.

(from: wikipedia - fuller)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Dust Storm

Wednesday, September 7, 2016


We just learned about the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake.

Another type of snake is the Bushmaster.

This type of snake lives in Central and South America, and can grow to be up to 15 feet long.
It is venomous, and is the longest snake in the west part of the world.

It's tail has a spike on it, which it shakes when it is in danger, but it does not make a rattle sound.
Because of this it has the nickname of the "mute rattlesnake".

(from: wikipedia - lachesis (genus))

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rottweiler

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Dorsal Root

We just learned about the anterior roots that are on the front part of the spinal nerve.

The nerves that come out the back side of the spinal nerve are the Dorsal Roots.
Dorsal means the top or backside, like a dorsal fin of the dolphin.

(from: wikipedia - dorsal root of spinal nerve)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Popliteal Vein

Monday, September 5, 2016

Pamir Mountains

We just learned about the Hindu Kush mountain range.

Another mountain range is the Pamir Mountains, in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan and China.

They are nicknamed the Roof of the World or the Onion range.
It has the longest glacier in the world outside of the polar regions.
There is a path going through the Pamir Mountains that is part of a very important path long ago called the Silk Road.

(from: wikipedia - pamir mountains)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: West Virginia

Sunday, September 4, 2016


We just learned about the Christian Symbol of the Pelican.

Another Christian symbol is the Anchor.

The anchor was seen as something that was very safe, and something that you could hold on to if you needed to be strong.
(from: wikipedia - category:anchors on stained glass windows)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Paul's Letter to the Galatians

Saturday, September 3, 2016

Arch of Constantine

We just learned about the Ara Pacis.

Another ancient Roman sculpture is the Arch of Constantine, in Rome Italy.
It is a large cement arch that is over 60 feet tall and over 80 feet wide.

This was built to honor the Emperor Constantine, and has many sculptures of soldiers and battles from the bottom to the top.

Many of the stone statues are twice as tall as a person.

(from: wikipedia - arch of constantine)

(from: wikipedia - arch of constantine)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Farewell - August Macke

Friday, September 2, 2016

Italian - Counting to eighty nine

We counted to 79 in Italian, let's keep going!

80 ottanta - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah /?/
81 unottanta - sounds like oo-n-oh-tah-n-tah /?/
82 ottantadue - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-doo-ay /?/
83 ottantatre - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-t-day /?/
84 ottantaquattro - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-koo-ah-t-doh /?/
85 ottantacinque - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-chee-n-koo-ay /?/
86 ottantasei - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-say-ee /?/
87 ottantasette - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-say-tay /?/
88 ottantotto - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-oh-toh /?/
89 ottantanove - sounds like oh-tah-n-tah-no-vay /?/

Goethe Institute
(from: wikipedia - Goethe Institute)

achtzig, einundachtzig, zweiundachtzig, dreiundachtzig, vierundachtzig, fünfundachtzig, sechsundachtzig, siebenundachtzig, achtundachtzig, neunundachtzig

ochenta, ochenta y uno, ochenta y dos, ochenta y tres, ochenta y cuatro, ochenta y cinco, ochenta y seis, ochenta y siete, ochenta y ocho, ochenta y nueve

quatre-vingts, quatre-vingts-un, quatre vingt deux, quatre vingt trois, quatre vingt quatre, quatre vingt cinq, quatre vingt six, quatre vingt sept, quatre vingt huit, quatre vingt neuf

Thursday, September 1, 2016


We just learned about the chisel.

Another tool used in a blacksmith forge is the tong.

The metal is too hot for the blacksmith to touch, so the tongs are used to hold it still while it is being shaped and hammered, or for putting it in or taking it out of a hot forge.

There are a few types of tongs, like flat tongs, ring tongs, and gad tongs.
Depending on what type of metal the blacskmith is working with, different shapes of tongs can help hold it better.
If it is a flat piece of metal, the flat tongs work well.
But if it is a round bar, it might slip with flat tongs, so the ring tongs would work better.

(from: wikipedia - tongs)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sand Storm