Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Soft Palate

We just learned about the Hard Palate on the roof of the mouth.

Another part of the mouth is the Soft Palate.

This is on the roof of your mouth, right at the back of your throat.
You can feel that this is soft, and under the skin are five different muscles that help you swallow.

They all have big long names, but they make sense if you understand what they are doing:

- Levator & Tensor veli palatini - Lift and tightens up the palate to block the back of the throat so food doesn't go up to your nose

- Palatoglossus & Palatopharyngeus - Use the palate muscles to pull on the back of your throat (pharynx) to close up the place where you breathe (trachea) and make sure the food goes down the esophagus where it's supposed to

- Musculus uvulae - Moves the uvula to help block food from going up your nose

(from: wikipedia - soft palate)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Interphalangeal Ligaments

Monday, April 29, 2019


We just learned about the short wall on top of a castle called a Parapet.

Another part of a castle is the Crenel.

Sometimes people would have gaps in the parapet wall, so that they could attack their enemies with arrows or even throw rocks on them.

The gap or low spaces on the parapet walls are called the crenel, or embrasure.

(from: wikipedia - battlement)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Balmoral Castle

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Battle of the Milvan Bridge

We just learned about the Edict of Milan written in 313 AD by the emperor Constantine that it legal to be a Christian.

In the year 312 AD there was a big battle called the Battle of the Milvan Bridge in Ponte Milvio, Rome.

At that time Constantine was in a war with another emperor Maxentius.
Some time before the battle Constantine had a vision telling him to use the Chi-Ro symbol for his army, and he would win the battle with that as his sign.

We learned before that the chi-rho is the greek letters that look like X and P, and were for the Greek word for Christ, that started with those two letters.

Constantine put that symbol on the shields of his army, and beat Maxentius.

It was after he won that battle that he went back and wrote the Edict of Milan to make Christians free.

(from: wikipedia - battle of the milvan bridge)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Parmenas

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Taj Mahal

We just learned about the Jama Masjid.

Another famous Indian work of art is the Taj Mahal, built in 1632 AD in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.

The building is 240 feet tall, and the area where the building is covers 42 acres of land.
There is a mosque and a guest house, and fancy gardens.

It was made as a tomb for the wife of the emperor Shah Jahan.
He was so sad when his wife Mumtaz Mahal died that he wanted to make a very fancy place for her body to be put to rest.
The name Taj Mahal means "Crown of the Palaces".
It took about 20,000 people to make all the artwork, the buildings, gardens and towers to get it done.

(from: wikipedia - taj mahal)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Houmuwu Ding

Friday, April 26, 2019

Norwegian - His face is rough

We just learned in Norwegian her hands are soft is Hennes hender er myke.

To say his face is rough you would say Ansiktet hans er grovt.

The face - ansiktet - sounds like ah-n-sick-teh
his - hans - sounds like hah-n-z
is - er - sounds like eh-dr
rough - grovt - sounds like g-dro-v-t

So all together Ansiktet hans er grovt sounds like ah-n-sick-teh hah-n-z eh-dr g-dro-v-t.

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Το πρόσωπό του είναι τραχύ (To prósopó tou eínai trachý)

ASL: His face is rough

Italian: il suo volto è ruvida

German: Sein Gesicht ist rau.

Spanish: Su cara es áspera

French: Son visage est rude

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Forensic Firearm Examination

We just learned about Ballistic Fingerprints.

Another type of science is Forensic Firearm Examination.

When guns are made, they are each given a special different code number called a "serial number".
No two guns have the same number, and when someone buys a gun they keep track of who owns which gun with which serial number.

This is done so that if a gun is used for a crime, the police can look at the serial number on the gun and figure out who owns the gun.

The serial number is printed right into the metal of the gun.
Sometimes people try to scrape off the metal where the serial number is, but police can use special electromagnets and chemicals to tell what the serial number was even if it has been scraped off.

Some guns these days are also being made to mark the serial number of the gun on the bullet when it is fired.
That way each bullet can be tracked down to who fired it if a crime is committed.

(from: wikipedia - forensic firearm examination)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rocket Engine Nozzle

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Irukandji Jellyfish

We just learned about the Immortal Jellyfish.

Another type of jellyfish is the Irukandji Jellyfish.

This is the smallest type of jelly, and also one of the most venomous ones in the world!

They can be as small as 0.2 inches, and as big as a little less than 1 inch.
Their tentacles can be as short as less than one inch, or as long as 3 feet.

If this type of jelly stings a person, after about 30 minutes they can have headaches, muscle pains, throwing up, or even a heart attack.
It can take a few hours to get better, or sometimes a day or even a few weeks!

Such a small jelly that pack such a dangerous sting can be scary to watch out for in the water.
These jellies mostly only live around Australia on the north side.

(from: wikipedia - irukandji jellyfish)

Irukandji Jellyfish - World's deadliest fishing - The Nature of Science

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Argonaut Octopus

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Hard Palate

We just learned about the Sublingual Caruncle.

Another part of the mouth is the Hard Palate.

This is the roof of your mouth, right over your tongue.
You can push up on it with your tongue, and it is hard because there is bone right there underneath the skin.

(from: wikipedia - hard palate)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Metatarsal Ligaments

Monday, April 22, 2019


We just learned about the Wall Walk.

Another part of a castle is the Parapet.

On the roof of the castle, or on the wall walk, the parapet is a short wall that is built so that people can see over it, but also hide behind it.

(from: wikipedia - parapet)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Alcázar of Segovia

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Edict of Milan

We just learned about the Edict of Serdica.

Another part of early Christian history is the Edict of Milan, written in 313 AD.

When the Emperor Galerius said that it was ok to be a Christian, there were still a lot of old churches and things that had been taken from Christians.

The Emperors Constantine and Licinius decided that everyone should be free to worship whoever they want, and they ordered that all of the things that were taken from the Christians had to be returned.

So this mean that churches or anything like crosses, sculptures or anything that was seen as Christian had to be given back to the Christians so they could have freedom to worship.

(from: wikipedia - edict of milan)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Timon

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Jama Masjid

We just learned about the Chola Nataraja.

Another famous Indian sculpture is the Jama Masjid, in Delhi, built around 1650 AD.

The name means "World reflecting mosque".
It cost 1 million rupees when it was built, and is made with four towers, and some tall posts over 130 feet tall.
The construction is made of limestone, sandstone and white marble.

(from: wikipedia - jama masjid, delhi)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Jade Burial Suits

Friday, April 19, 2019

Norwegian - Her hands are soft

We just learned in Norwegan our table is short is Vårt bord er kort.

To say her hands are soft you would say Hennes hender er myke.
Her - Hennes - sounds like heh-neh-ss
hands - hender - sounds like hen-deh-r
are - er - sounds like ah-r
soft - myke - sounds like mee-kay

So all together Hennes hender er myke sounds like heh-neh-ss hen-deh-r ah-r mee-kay.

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Τα χέρια της είναι μαλακά (Ta chéria tis eínai malaká)

ASL: ASL: Her hands are soft

Italian: Le sue mani sono morbide

German: Ihre Hände sind weich

Spanish: Sus manos estan suaves

French: Ses mains sont douces

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Ballistic Fingerprints

We just learned about the Toxicology.

Another part of forensics is the study of Ballistic Fingerprints.

When someone uses a gun to shoot someone else, and they run away before the police can arrest them, there are ways that scientists can look at the bullets to try and figure out which gun they came from.

When a bullet is shot out of a gun, it spins around inside the gun's barrel.
This is a special thing called rifling, and it helps the bullet go straighter.
The way the bullet is spun around inside the gun leaves marks on the metal bullet.

If the police find the bullet that was used to shoot someone, and they find the gun that they think was used, they can test shooting another bullet out of that same gun and see if the marks on the bullets match.

They put both bullets under a microscope and if the lines match up, then they can use that as evidence to put a bad person in jail.

(from: wikipedia - forensic firearm examination)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Gas Rocket Propellants

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Immortal Jellyfish

We just learned about the Lion's Mane Jellyfish.

Another type of jellyfish is the Immortal Jellyfish, also called the turritopsis dohrnii.

This type of jellyfish does not get very big, less than one inch when it is fully grown.

This jellyfish starts out as a tiny baby jellyfish on the ocean floor.
When it grows up, it turns into a little bigger jellyfish and swims around the ocean looking for food.

If it gets hurt or is starving too badly, it can actually turn back into a baby jellyfish and start all over on the ocean floor!
That's like a grown up human turning back into a baby and starting life all over!

Because these jellyfish could do this over and over forever, they are called the immortal jellyfish, because immortal means you live forever.

(from: wikipedia - turritopsis dohrnii)

The Strange But Incredible Immortal Jellyfish - V101 Science

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bigfin Reef Squid

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Sublingual Caruncle

We just learned about the Fimbriated Fold.

Another part of the mouth is the Sublingual Caruncle.

Sublingual means "underneath the tongue", and caruncle means some skin sticking out like a bump.

Remember the frenulum is the piece of skin under the tongue that holds it in place.
On each side of the frenulum is a little bump.
That bump is the sublingual caruncle, and it is where most of the saliva or spit in your mouth comes out of.

(from: wikipedia - submandibular gland)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Distal Intertarsal Ligaments

Monday, April 15, 2019

Wall Walk

We just learned about the Zwinger.

Another part of a castle is a Wall Walk.

On top of the castle wall sometimes there is a pathway, with a small wall next to it.
People could walk on the wall, but still be protected by the small wall.
They could also look out to see who was coming, or shoot arrows or throw things down on any attackers.

(from: wikipedia - chemin de ronde)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Neuschwanstein Castle

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Edict of Serdica

We just learned about the The Great Persecution.

Another part of early Christianity was the Edict of Serdica.

Remember that in 303 AD the Emperor named Diocletian started the Great Persecution, where Christians were killed and churches were burned down.
Later on a new Emperor took over named Galerius, and in the year 311 AD he decided that they should stop the Great Persecution.

He wrote a letter that was called the Edict of Serdica, which said that they tried to stop Christians from worshipping Jesus and tried to force them to worship Roman gods but it wasn't working.
So they decided to just let Christians worship Jesus, and not try and force them to worship Roman gods anymore.

This was the first time ever in history that rulers of any country made a law saying that it was ok to be a Christian.

(from: wikipedia - edict of serdica)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nicanor

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Chola Nataraja

We just learned about the Ajanta Caves.

Another famous Indian sculpture is the Chola Nataraja.

From around 400 years in India around 800 AD there were kings and rulers known as the Cholas.

These people really tried to improve the buildings and artwork of their country, and build things that would last for a thousand years.

There are many famous bronze statues that were made during this time.
One of the most famous is the Nataraja.

One of the hindu deities is named Shiva, and sometimes they call him Nataraja which means lord of the dance.

(from: wikipedia - chola art and architecture)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng

Friday, April 12, 2019

Norwegian - Our table is short

We just learned that in Norwegian:
This house is big: Dette huset er stort
This chair is small: Stolen er liten
My drink is cold: Min drikke er kald
your food is hot is Maten er varm
and their car is tall is Deres bil er høy

To say our table is short you would say Vårt bord er kort.

Our - Vårt - sounds like voh-rt
table - bord - sounds like boo-r
is - er - Sounds like ay-r
short - kort - Sounds like koh-rt

So all together To say our table is short you would say voh-rt boo-r ay-r koh-rt.

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Το τραπέζι μας είναι σύντομο (To trapézi mas eínai sýntomo)

ASL: Our table is short

Italian: Il nostro tavolo è breve

German: Unser Tisch ist kurz

Spanish: Nuestra mesa es bajo

French: Notre table est courte

Thursday, April 11, 2019


We just learned about the Fingerprints.

Another part of forensic science is Toxicology.

Long ago when someone died and it was a mystery, it was very hard to tell what happened.
If a bad person had killed someone by using poison, there was no good way to prove it so they could be sent to jail.

In 1832, a scientist named James Marsh came up with a test that could be used to show if a poison called arsenic was used to kill someone.
Arsenic did not have a smell or a strong taste, so people would sometimes sneak it into someone's food to poison them.
With the Marsh test, they would take some liquid from the body of the person that was poisioned.
Either some blood, or saliva (or spit) from their mouth, or urine from their bladder.
That liquid would be put into a bottle with some other chemicals, then burned up with some other gases, and then if it left a silvery black stain after being burned, it was proof that arsenic was used.

After Marsh proved to everyone that this test worked, it was used by police all over the world to put people in jail for trying to poison other people!

Because this worked so well, people worked on coming up with other ways to test for chemicals in a person's body.
These days scientists can test hair, blood, saliva, sweat or even food that is in the intestines that was not totally digested yet.

Toxicology helps the police prove what the truth is, using the evidence that is in the body!

(from: wikipedia - marsh test)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Liquid Rocket Propellants

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Lion's Mane Jellyfish

We just learned about the Cannonball Jellyfish.

Another type of jellyfish is the Lion's Mane Jellyfish, also called the Giant Jellyfish or the Hair Jelly.

This is the largest type of jellyfish in the world, with the biggest one ever found being over 7 feet wide, and over 120 feet long.
That's taller than a house, and even longer than the blue whale!

Most of these jellies only grow to be about 2 feet wide, and they live in the very cold parts of the pacific ocean.
They swim about 65 feet under the water, and eat very tiny animals.
Other big animals like leatherback sea turtles love to eat these jellyfish for a snack!

They have over a thousand stinging tentacles, but they don't hurt too bad for humans, just the tiny animals they want to eat.

(from: wikipedia - lion's mane jellyfish)

Lion's Mane Jellyfish - Matteo Endrizzi

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Flamboyant Cuttlefish

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Fimbriated Fold

We just learned about the Frenulum.

Another part of the mouth is the Fimbriated Fold of the tongue, also sometimes called the Plica Fimbriata.
The word fimbria comes from the latin word for "fringe"
These are two folds of skin on the bottom of the tongue, going front to back on either side of the frenulum.

For most people these just look like lines with bumps going down the tongue, but for some people there are small pieces of skin sticking out longer.

(from: wikipedia - fimbriated fold of tongue)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Transverse Tarsal Ligaments

Monday, April 8, 2019


We just learned about the Enceinte.

Another part of a castle is a Zwinger.

Some castles would have an outside wall and then an inside wall.
The place in between the two walls is called the zwinger.

This was made so that if attackers broke through the outside wall, the people defending the castle would be able to attack them easily in a small space before they could break into the main castle space.

(from: wikipedia - zwinger)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Baja California Sur

Sunday, April 7, 2019

The Great Persecution

We just learned about the Antipope.

Another part of early Christianity was the Great Persecution.

In Rome in the year 303 AD the Christians were already not treated very well, but the Roman emperors named Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius really did not like Christians.

They thought that Christianity should go away, and everyone should be forced to Roman gods like Jupiter.
Everyone was forced to make a sacrifice to the Roman gods, or they would be killed.

The Roman emperors ordered that Christian churches were burned to the ground, and any books or writings about Christianity were burned.
In some cities, they would bring large groups of people together and make them give a sacrifice to a Roman god or they would be killed.

This was a very tough time to be a Christian, but people still managed to save many of the old Christian writings that we know of today that helped make up the Bible!

(from: wikipedia - 20,000 martyrs of nicomedia)

(from: wikipedia - diocltianic persecution)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Prochorus

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Ajanta Caves

We just learned about the Sanchi Stupa.

Another group of famous sculpture in India is the Ajanta Caves.

This is a group of 30 caves, built over a long time between 100 BC to around 650 AD.
The caves were carved into a 250 foot wall of rock.

In each of the cave areas are tall columns, and sculptures of buddha or other statues.
The caves were used as homes for some monks, places to hide during dangerous storms, and places for travelers to stop and rest on their journey.

(from: wikipedia - ajanta caves)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Leshan Giant Buddha