Wednesday, October 31, 2018


We just learned about the Cephalopod Ink.

Another part of many cephalopods is the Chromatophore.

Cephalopods have little sacks in their skin called cytoelastic sacculus, that are filled with something called pigment granules.

That's a lot of big words, but it basically means they have tiny bags of color all over their skin, and they use muscles to squish out more color or less color to change the way they look.

(from: wikipedia - Chromatophore)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rhacophorus

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Tooth - Initiation

We just learned about the Dentinogenesis.

When teeth are first being developed in the gums by a baby before it is born, that is called the Initiation Stage.

Babies are usually born without any teeth showing, but their mouths have already started getting ready for teeth to be made in their jaw.

The first sign of teeth getting ready is when the skin in the mouth starts to change.
Very soon a tooth will be made underneath the skin, and the gums need to be ready to heal up quickly when a tooth pokes through the skin for the first time.

(from: wikipedia - dental lamina)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

Monday, October 29, 2018

Predjama Castle

We just learned about Bellver Castle.

Another famous castle is Predjama Castle, built around 1200 AD in Slovenia.

This castle was built right into the mouth of a cave, so that it could be very strong against attacks.

Most of the castle is in front of the cave, but some of back walls of the castle are built right into the rock, and they are connected to the entrance to go back into the cave.

The people who created the castle even made secret cave exits that they could use to try and sneak food in and out when the castle was under attack.

Down underneath the castle are four more levels built into the caves!
It is one of the longest caves in Slovenia.

(from: wikipedia - predjama castle)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Michoacan

Sunday, October 28, 2018

Epaphroditus - Bishop of Andriace

We just learned about Tychicus - Bishop of Colophonia, one of the seventy disciples.

Another of the seventy is Epaphroditus - Bishop of Andriace.

Epaphroditus was from Philippi, and came to help Paul when he was in jail in Rome.
He was such a hard worker that he worked until he was sick and almost died.

He got better, and later went on to be known as one of the leaders of the church in the town of Philippi.

(from: wikipedia - epaphroditus)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Theodore the Studie

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Asura at Kōfuku-ji temple

We just learned about the Kongōrikishi.

Another famous ancient Japanese sculpture is the sculpture of Asura at Kōfuku-ji temple, made around 700 AD in Nara Japan.

Buddhists believe that the Asura is a powerful creature that helps protect the temples.

This sculpture was made using a type of art called kanshitsu, which means dry lacquer.
For this type of art, sculptors first make a model out of clay.
Then they take some cloth that they soak in a special type of oil and sawdust.
After that they wrap the statue in these cloths until it dries.
Last they break the clay out from underneath so it is a hollow statue.

(from: wikipedia - Kōfuku-ji)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nicolaus Copernicus Monument - Thorwaldsen

Friday, October 26, 2018

Norwegian - Good Morning

We just learned a few ways to say hello and goodbye in Norwegian, like Hei, Ha det.

Sometimes you might want to say good morning, good afternoon, or good night.

Good Morning - God morgen - sounds like goo-d more-ghen

Good Day - God dag - sounds like Goo-d dah-g

Good Afternoon - God ettermiddag - sounds like goo-d eh-teh-r-me-dah-g

Good Evening - God kveld - sounds like goo-d k-veh-l-d

Good Night - God natt - sounds like goo-d nah-t

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Καλημέρα (Kaliméra), Καλησπέρα (Kalispéra), Καληνυχτα (Kalinychta)

ASL: Good Morning, Good Day, Good Evening, Good Night

Italian: buongiorno, buon pomeriggio, buonasera, buona notte

German: Guten Morgen, Guten Tag, Guten Abend, Gute Nacht

Spanish: Buenos días, buenos tardes, buenas noches

French: bonjour, bonsoir, bonne nuit

Thursday, October 25, 2018

Lagari Hasan Çelebi

We just learned about the Bellifortis Rockets.

Another ancient rocket launch from history was the first manned rocket flight, by Lagari Hasan Çelebi in 1633 AD in Instabul, Turkey.

Lagari was famous for flying, and the legend of his flying says that he made a 7 winged rocket with gunpowder, and launched it in the air to celebrate the birth of the sultan's daughter.

Before he launched he said "O my sultan! Be blessed, I am going to talk to Jesus!"

After he landed in the water he swam back to shore and jokingly said "O my sultan! Jesus sends his regards to you!"

Some people think maybe this rocket wasn't real, but since it was so long ago no one can really tell for sure.

(from: wikipedia - lagâri hasan celebi)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Thrust Fault

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Cephalopod Ink

We just learned about the Cephalopod Funnel.

Another part of a cephalopod is the Ink Sac.

This is inside the mantle where the gills are, and when an octopus or squid gets scared it will let out some black ink to hide, and to try and scare off anyone coming to attack it.

The ink just comes out of the ink sac, and they use the funnel that they squirt water out of to shoot the ink all over the place.

The ink is so dark that sometimes people use it to color types of food very dark.

(from: wikipedia - arròs negre)

octopus shooting ink! - Bilal El Hasnaoui

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Wallace's Flying Frog

Tuesday, October 23, 2018


We just learned about the Odontoblast.

Another part of a tooth growing is Dentinogenesis.

This what it is called when the Odontoblasts that we learned about create the dentin inside the teeth.

(from: wikipedia - human tooth development)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Intervertebral Discs

Monday, October 22, 2018

Bellver Castle

We just learned about the Palace of Versailles.

Another famous castle is Bellver Castle, bult in 1311 on the Island of Majorca in Spain.

This was built long ago for King James II of Majorca, and it is a special castle because it is shaped like a circle!
The outside of the castle is a circle, the inside is a circle, and all of the towers are circles.
It is the only circular castle in Spain!

For a long time it was the home of the Kings of the land, but later was turned into a prison.
Now it is a museum and a place for tourists to come look at.

(from: wikipedia - bellver castle)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nuevo León

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Tychicus - bishop of Colophonia

We just learned about Apollos - Bishop of Cæsarea, one of the seventy disciples.

The next two disciples listed were also with Cæsarea as being friends of Paul, and leaders of the churches.

Cephas - bishop of Iconium
Sosthenes - bishop of Colophonia

Another of the seventy was Tychicus - bishop of Colophonia.

He is mentioned a few different times in the Bible by Paul, where he was being sent to different churches to help teach the people there about Jesus.
Paul talks about Tychicus in the books of Acts, Ephesians, Colossians, Titus and Timothy, so he was a hard worker that Paul could send around to help people all over.

(from: wikipedia - tychicus)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Ladder of Divine Ascent

Saturday, October 20, 2018


We just learned about the Tamamushi Shrine.

Another type of Japanese sculptures is the Kongōrikishi (金剛力士), also called Niō (仁王).

These are two big mean looking sculptures with big muscles and weapons that were made as guardians for Buddhist temples.

One guard is making the "ah" sound and the other is making an "uhm" sound.
The ah is supposed to be like the first sound you make when you are born, and the uhm is the last sound you make before you die.
So the statues represent all life from birth to death.

(from: wikipedia - nio)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Arc de Triomphe - Cortot

Friday, October 19, 2018

Norwegian - Hello and Goodbye

We've now learned a whole year of Greek!

Let's try another language now, how about Norwegian?
This is the language of the people of Norway, and it also is a lot like the languages of Danish and Swedish from the countries of Denmark and Sweden.
The vikings from long ago spoke a language called Old Norse, which later turned into Norwegian, so in a way it's the language of vikings!

Norwegian uses mostly the same alphabet as English, but it has some accents on the letters, like some of the other languages we've learned about.

It has three extra letters that are not in English: Æ, Ø, Å
These are vowels that make sounds like the a in apple, the u in cut or i in girl, or the o in lock or short.

Let's learn how to say hello and goodbye in Norwegian!

There are a few ways to say Hello.

Hi - Hei - Sounds like High
This is like saying Hi to your friends.

Hello - Hallo - Sounds like Hah-loh
This is like saying hello to a grownup, saying hello on the phone, or yelling hello to a friend from far away.

Bye - Ha det - Sounds like Hah-duh
This is just like saying bye to your friends.

Good Bye - Ha det brah - Sounds like Hah duh brah
Usually people just say hah det, but sometimes they say hah det brah, just like usually in English you say bye, but you might say goodbye sometimes.

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Γειά σου, Χαίρετε, Αντίο

ASL: Hello and Goodbye

Italian: Ciao, arrivederci

German: Hallo, Auf Wiedersehen

Spanish: Hola! Adiós!

French: Bonjour! Au Revoir!

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Bellifortis Rockets

We just learned about the Shock Diamond.

For the history of rocket science, the inventions were made either for war, or for fun like fireworks.

There was a book called Bellifortis written by a German scientist named Konrad Kyeser around 1400 AD that talks about rockets.
It says how rockets were being used for war but also for fun like fireworks.

Because there were no pictures back then, some people made drawings of the rockets, but no one knows for sure what they looked like.
In this book there was a drawing of the famous Alexander the Great holding a big rocket.

Konrad's book talks about rockets that were launched in the air, rockets that floated on the water, or rockets that were tied on a string.
These rockets probably all used the solid rocket fuel of gunpowder to launch them along.

(from: wikipedia - bellifortis)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Aftershock

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Cephalopod - Funnel

We just learned about the Octopus Gills.

Another part of a cephalopod's body is the Funnel, also sometimes called a siphon.

When a cephalopod like a squid or octopus breathes in, they suck water into their mantle and then push it through their gills.

When they breathe out, they shoot the water out of a tube called a funnel.
They can even use that water shooting out like a little water jet and push their body along under water.

(from: wikipedia - octopus)

Octopus jet siphon system - clarkq

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mission Golden Eyed Tree Frog

Tuesday, October 16, 2018


We just learned about the Tooth Root.

Another part of the tooth is the Odontoblast.

These are the cells inside where the pulp is that help make the dentin part of the tooth.

(from: wikipedia - odontoblast)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Supraspinous Ligament

Monday, October 15, 2018

Palace of Versailles

We just learned about the Chateau de Chantilly.

Another famous castle is the Palace of Versailles, built around 1600 AD.

This was the home of the leaders of France for 100 years until 1789, and is now a museum.

It has many famous rooms inside, like the Hall of Mirrors, the Royal Opera, the Grand Trianon, Petit Trianon, small Hameau and the famous gardens.

It is the second most visited place in France, just after Louvre.

(from: wikipedia - palace of versailles)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Chiapas

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Apollos - Bishop of Cæsarea

We just learned about the Sosipater - Bishop of Iconium, one of the seventy disciples.

The next three of the seventy listed were bishops that also lived along with Sosipater in the same area and helped tell people about Jesus:

Tertius - Bishop of Iconium
Erastus - Bishop of Panellas
Quartus - Bishop of Berytus

Another of the seventy was Apollos - Bishop of Cæsarea.

Apollos worked with the Apostle Paul to help tell people about Jesus in Corinth.
Paul talks about Apollos a few times in the Bible as he goes and teaches him about Jesus and how to teach other people.

Apollos became the leader of the church in Corinth, and Paul talks about him in the book of the Bible called Corinthians, which was a letter to the church leaders in the town of Corinth.

(from: wikipedia - apollos)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lavra

Saturday, October 13, 2018

Tamamushi Shrine

We just learned about the Shaka Triad of Hōryūji by Tori Busshi.

Another ancient Japanese sculpture is the Tamamushi Shrine, made around 600 AD.

This is a 7 foot tall wooden sculpture of a buddhist temple, with statues all over the outside, as well as paintings telling ancient stories.

Inside the temple doors are tiny wooden carvings of buddha.

The outside of the temple used to be very colorful, because the artist used shiny colorful wings from tamamushi beetles to decorate it.

(from: wikipedia - tamamushi shrine)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sèvres pot-pourri vase in the shape of a ship - Duplessis

Friday, October 12, 2018

Greek - Vegetables

We just learned how to say some fruits in Greek.

Let's learn how to say some vegetables.

carrot καρότο (karóto) - sounds like kah-ROH-toh
corn καλαμπόκι (kalampóki) - sounds like kah-lah-m-POH-kee
pea μπιζέλι (bizéli) - sounds like bee-ZAY-lee

center for the greek language
(from: wikipedia - center for the greek language)

ASL: carrot, corn, pea

Italian: carote, mais, piselli

German: Karotte, Mais, Erbse

Spanish: zanahoria, maíz, guisante

French: carotte, maïs, pois

Thursday, October 11, 2018

Shock Diamond

We just learned about the Multi-stage Rocket.

Another part of rocket science is the Shock Diamond.

When a rocket engine is pushing itself along, the burned up rocket fuel coming out of the nozzle is the exhaust.
This exhaust sometimes is coming out faster than the speed of sound, which is called supersonic speed.

When something is moving through the air it is making waves, and when it moves at supersonic speeds it makes these special diamond shapes in the exhaust called shock diamonds.

This is all because the waves that the exhaust is making are moving faster than the sound waves can move, so they overlap and make shapes that you can see.

(from: wikipedia - shock diamond)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mainshock

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Octopus Gills

We just learned about the Mantle of an Octopus or squid.

When the octopus or squid wants to breathe, they breathe through Gills just like fish.

The gills are inside the mantle, so they will take water into their mantle, and use some muscles to close their mantle.
This makes the water push through their gills where they can get the oxygen they need.

(from: wikipedia - octopus)

Amazing breathing of an Octopus - isarounddaworld

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bornean Eared Frog