Friday, May 31, 2019

Norwegian - March, April

Let's keep learning about the months of the year in Norwegian!

We already learned that January, February is Januar, Februar

Let's keep going!

March - Mars - sounds like mah-r-ss
April - April - sounds like ah-p-d-eel

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Μάρτιος (Mártios), Απρίλιος (Aprílios)

ASL: March, April

Italian: Marzo, Aprile

German: März, April

Spanish: Marzo, Abril

French: Mars, Avril

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Forensic Entomology

We just learned about how Forensic Dentistry can help use teeth to solve crimes.

Another type of science used by detectives is Forensic Entomology.

Entomology is the study of bugs!

Bugs can be pretty scary and gross, but sometimes they can actually help solve crimes that no one else can figure out.
When someone dies, and a detective has to figure out how it happened, they can look at all different types of bugs.

When a scientist is in a laboratory looking at the body of someone who died, they can sometimes find clues of different types of insects that touched the body.
This can help them figure out how long it's been since the person died, and even sometimes it can tell them where the person was at when they died.
This can be very useful in solving crimes!

Studying bugs can also help scientists figure out if there is a problem with bugs in an area.
Like if someone complains that there are fleas in their house, scientists can come by and help figure out where they are coming from, how they got in there, and how to get rid of them.

Forensic entomology also helps figure how helpful insects like bees are being killed, like if there is a type of chemical somewhere that is causing problems for them.

Bugs are not always pretty, but studying the science of bugs can help solve mysteries!

(from: wikipedia - forensic entomology)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Specific Impulse

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

White Spotted Jellyfish

We just learned about the Lobed Comb Jellyfish that lights up like a rainbow.

Another type of jellyfish is the White Spotted Jellyfish, also called the floating bell, Australian spotted jellyfish, or phyllorhiza punctata.

This type of jelly started out living in warm water in the Pacific ocean by Australia and Japan, but has now been found all the way over by California, and even in the Gulf of Mexico.
It grows to about 20 inches wide, and does have a sting but it doesn't really hurt humans.

They swim in large groups with other white spotted jellies, and because of this they can be harmful to other life in the ocean.
In their groups they swim along and eat all of the tiny little things like zooplankton, or eggs of crabs, shrimp or fish.
They also clog up the boat motors and cause problems with ships on the sea.

(from: wikipedia - phyllorhiza punctata)

(from: youtube - Underwater Beauty: Spotted Jellies - Shedd Aquarium)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Giant Cuttlefish

Tuesday, May 28, 2019


We just learned about the part on the roof of the mouth called the Palatine Raphe.

Another part of the mouth is the Lips.
The big long names for the upper and lower lips are the Labium superius oris and "Labium inferius oris.
Labium means lip, superius and inferius are for upper and lower, and then oris is for the face, near the mouth.

The lips have no sweat glands, and can not grow hair.
Skin on the lips is softer than the face skin.

Most of the skin on the face has 16 layers, but the skin on the lips only has about 4 layers.
It also doesn't have the same coloring cells as the face does, so you can see right through the top skin and see the blood vessels underneath it.
That's why the lips are pink or red, because of the blood vessels underneath.

There are a whole bunch of muscles for the lips that we learned about a while ago:
Upper lip: levator labii superioris and levator anguli oris
Lower lip: depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, mentalis

Lips are used to open and close for food, to help make sounds when we talk, and also to kiss!
Because lips are on the human face, people try very hard to make their lips look nice, sometimes using makeup or lip gloss, and sometimes even having surgery to make their lips look bigger.

The lips are very important to keep healthy, which is why there are things like lip balm to protect them.
Healthy lips help protect the mouth from the outside, and keep a healthy mouth!

(from: wikipedia - lip)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Central Incisors

Monday, May 27, 2019

Curtain Wall

We just learned about the hole in a castle wall called the Machicolation.

Another part of a castle is a Curtain Wall.

This is another wall that goes around the main castle, to help protect the castle inside the wall.

Its name makes sense because it's like a big curtain going around the outside of the castle.

(from: wikipedia - curtain wall (fortification))

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Castel del Monte

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Church of the Pater Noster

We just learned about the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem where Jesus was born.

Another part of early Christian history is the Church of the Pater Noster in Jerusalem.

In the Bible there was a place called the Mount of Olives, where Jesus appeared to the disciples and then ascended into heaven.

When the emperor Constantine sent his mother Helena out to find some of the important places in Christianity, she came to this place and made a church where the Mount of Olives was.

It's called Church of the Pater Noster because "pater" means father and "noster" means our.
In a cave below the Mount of Olives is where people believe Jesus taught his disciples the Lord's Prayer, which starts with the words "Our Father".

(from: wikipedia - church of the pater noster)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Luke the Evangelist

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Pisa Griffin

We just learned about the Trà Kiệu Pedestal from the ancient Champa kingdom.

Another famous sculpture is the Pisa Griffin, made around 1000 AD somewhere in Spain.

It is about 3 feet tall, and is the largest Islamic metal sculpture ever found.
It has carvings on it, and some holes.
Some people think the holes were used to make it into a fountain, and others think maybe the holes were to make sounds like a horn.

The sculpture is in Pisa, Italy now, and people think it was taken as a treasure from war long ago when some people from Italy battled some Islamic people in Spain.

(from: wikipedia - pisa griffin)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Six Ritual Jades - Hu

Friday, May 24, 2019

Norwegian - January, February

We just learned about the days of the week.

Let's learn about the months of the year in Norwegian!

January - Januar - sounds like yah-noo-adr
February - Februar - sounds like feh-b-doo-ah-dr

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Ιανουάριος (Ianouários), Φεβρουάριος (Fevrouários)

ASL: January, February

Italian: Gennaio, Febbraio

German: Januar, Februar

Spanish: Enero, Febrero

French: Janvier, Février

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Forensic Dentistry

We just learned about how scientists can use Forensic Botany to figure out what kind of plants were around during a crime.

Another part of forensic science is Forensic Dentistry.

Sometimes after a crime has been committed, scientists will look at teeth to figure out what really happened.

If there was a fight between two people and one person bit the other person, they can look at the bite mark and try to match it up to the other person's teeth!

There also might be a skeleton that was found from a long time ago, and people aren't sure who it was.
If that person ever went to the dentist and had molds made of their teeth or x-rays of them, they can try to match it up and see who it was.

The teeth can also tell a scientist how old a person was when they died.
This can even be helpful for people that died hundreds of years ago, when people are digging out ancient pyramids, castles or finding cavemen!

(from: wikipedia - forensic dentistry)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rocket Engine Thrust

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Lobed Comb Jellyfish

We just learned about the small Barrel Jellyfish.

Another jellyfish is the Lobed Comb Jellyfish, also called the common northern comb jelly, or the bolinopsis infundibulum.

It grows to about 6 inches long, and lives mostly in the northern Atlantic Ocean.

This type of jelly is see through or sometimes milky white.
It has two small tentacles, and it's mouth is at one end of its body.

They have little tiny hairs along their body that they use to swim around.
On their body they have parts that light up using bioluminescence.
This means some chemicals in their body mix together to change colors and glow in the dark.

(from: wikipedia - bolinopsis infundibulum)

(from: youtube - The Lovely Lobed Comb Jelly - Monterey Bay Aquarium)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mimic Octopus

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Palatine Raphe

We just learned about the bump of skin behind your front teeth called the Incisive Papilla.

Another part of the mouth is the Palatine Raphe.

This is the bump on the roof of the mouth in the middle that goes from front to back.
Some people have a big bump that sticks out, but for others it is just a little bump.

(from: wikipedia - palatine raphe)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Baby Teeth

Monday, May 20, 2019


We just learned about the Battlements on the top of the castle where people defend from attackers.

Another part of a castle's defense is the Machicolation.

This is a place where the top of the wall sticks out a little and there is a hole where people can drop things down on attackers.
It isn't a low spot in the wall like a crenel, the wall is still high there like a merlon, but it sticks out.
In the old days people would use that spot to drop big rocks or pour hot water or oil on people trying to break into the castle.

One famous machicolation we already learned about is at Blarney Castle in Ireland.
The stone on the bottom of the machicolation is called the Blarney Stone, and kissing it is for good luck!

(from: wikipedia - machicolation)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Schwerin Castle

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Church of the Nativity

We just learned about Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine.

Another part of early Christianity is the Church of the Nativity.

After the emperor Constantine became a Christian, he sent his mother Helena out on a trip called a pilgrimage to go and find some of the holy places from the history of the Bible.

She went to Bethlehem and found the place where Jesus was born.
After she found it, she set up a church there, and it has been there for over 1,600 years, since 327 AD.

In the church there is a spot on the ground where people believe Mary was when Jesus was born.
There is a 14 pointed star on the ground, with a circle hole in the middle.
The points on the star are for the history of Jesus' family from Abraham to David, David to when the Hebrews were captured in Babylon, and then from that time to Jesus.
Where the hole is in the middle is a stone that you can touch, that people believe is the actual stone from when Jesus was born.

(from: wikipedia - church of the nativity)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mark the Evangelist

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Trà Kiệu Pedestal

We just learned about the ancient temple Borobudur in Indonesia.

Another famous sculpture is the Trà Kiệu Pedestal, built around 250 BC in Southeast Asia.

Long ago there was a kingdom known as the Champa in the countries of Malaysia and Thailand.
The kingdom and most of the temples were destroyed by other kingdoms, but there was a big temple that had pedestals to hold it up, and one of those was saved.

The Trà Kiệu Pedestal has a bunch of people dancing and playing music on it.
It shows some of the history from that time that is now lost because other artwork was destroyed.

(from: wikipedia - trà kiệu)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Six Ritual Jades - Huang

Friday, May 17, 2019

Norwegian - Saturday, Sunday

We just learned that Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday in Norwegian is Mandag, Tirsdag, Onsdag and Thursday, Friday is Torsdag, Fredag.

Let's keep learning the days of the week!

Saturday - Lørdag - sounds like loh-r-dah
Sunday - Søndag - sounds like sun-dah

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Σάββατο (Sávvato), Κυριακή (Kyriakí)

ASL: Saturday, Sunday

Italian: Sabato, Domenica

German: Samstag, Sonntag

Spanish: Sabado, Domingo

French: Samedi, Dimanche

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Forensic Botany

We just learned about the Species Test to test blood to see what kind of animal it belongs to.

Another type of forensic science is Forensic Botany.

This is the study of the plants around a place where a crime was committed.
If the police look at a person's shoes or clothes, sometimes they can find tiny pieces of plants that are on them.
It could be just a seed, or a piece of a leaf, or even a tiny bit of pollen from a flower.

If the forensic scientists find evidence of a type of plant, they can figure out what season a crime happened, like fall winter spring summer.
They can also sometimes figure out the place where it happened, like if a type of flower or plant only grows in one area.
Scientists can also look at the plants and figure out how long ago it was that someone was near those plants, because the plants get brown and decay.

Sometimes the pollen, seeds or bits of plants on our clothes are so small that a criminal wouldn't see it and think they got away with a crime, but the forensic scientists look closely and figure it out!

(from: wikipedia - botany)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rocket Engine

Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Barrel Jellyfish

We just learned about the Darth Vader Jellyfish that lives in the deep sea and looks like Darth Vader's helmet.

Another type of jellyfish is the Barrel Jellyfish, also called the dustbin-lid jellyfish, frilly-mouthed jellyfish, or rhizostoma pulmo.

This type of jelly lives in the Atlantic ocean, and the Mediterannean sea.
It is very small, only usually growing around 16 inches.

(from: wikipedia - rhizostoma pulmo)

(from: youtube - Swimming with a giant Barrel Jellyfish - Matt Slater)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Vampire Squid

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Incisive Papilla

We just learned about the ridges on the roof of the mouth called the Palatal Rugae.

Another part of the inside of the mouth is the Incisive Papilla.

Right behind the top two front teeth called incisors is a little bump of skin that sticks down.
A bump in mouth medical words is usually called a "papilla" and its right behind the incisors so it's called the incisive papilla.
It's usually right in the middle, and you can feel it with your tongue right behind the teeth.

(from: wikipedia - incisor)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Teeth

Monday, May 13, 2019


We just learned about the high part of a castle wall called the Merlon.

Another part of a castle is the Battlement.

Let's go over what we've learned about the things on top of a castle wall.
Wall Walk - The place to walk along the top of the wall
Parapet - Short wall that people can hide behind
Crenel or Embrasure - Open spaces in the parapet wall where people can throw things down on attackers
Merlon - High part of the parapet wall that people can hide behind. Opposite of a crenel.

All of these things together are called the battlements.

They were called that because people on top of the wall would be doing battle against people trying to attack the castle from the ground.

(from: wikipedia - battlement)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Caerlaverock Castle

Sunday, May 12, 2019

Saint Helena

We just learned about the emperor Constantine the Great who became the first Christian Emperor.

Another person from early Christianity is Saint Helena.

Helena was the mother of Constantine.
She became a Christian, and her son Constantine told her she could go into where all the Roman treasure was kept and try to find old Christian things that were taken away when Christianity was illegal.

He also gave her the job to go out and build some churches that are still around today over a thousand years later.

(from: wikipedia - helena (empress))

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Barnabas

Saturday, May 11, 2019


We just learned about the Bantey Srei Sculptures made of sandstone in Cambodia.

Another ancient sculpture in Southeast Asia is the Borobudur temple in Java, Indonesia built some time before 900 AD.

It is the biggest Buddhist temple in the world, with over 500 statues, and over 2,600 relief sculptures carved into the walls.
Remember we learned that a relief is where the sculpture sticks out from the background kind of like a 3D painting.

This big temple has a pathway that goes around and up the building.
Each level of the building is supposed to help guide people through knowledge and wisdom about the world.

(from: wikipedia - borobudur)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Six Ritual Jades - Cong

Friday, May 10, 2019

Norwegian - Thursday, Friday

We just learned that Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday in Norwegian is Mandag, Tirsdag, Onsdag.

Let's keep learning the days of the week!

Thursday - Torsdag - sounds like toh-dr-s-dah
Friday - Fredag - sounds like f-day-ah-dah

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Πέμπτη (Pémpti), Παρασκευή (Paraskeví)

ASL: Thursday, Friday

Italian: Giovedì, Venerdì

German: Donnerstag, Freitag

Spanish: Viernes, Jueves

French: Jeudi, Vendredi

Thursday, May 9, 2019

Species Test

We just learned about Forensic Anthropology, the study of a body to see who it is after someone has died.

Another test in forensic science is the Uhlenhuth Test or Species Test.

Way back in 1901 a scientist named Paul Uhlenhuth figured out how to test blood to see if it belonged to a human, or a different type or "species" of animal.

This was important because if a detective found a stain of blood somewhere, people could just lie and say that it was from a cow or a chicken or another animal.

If the blood was from a human, then it was a big deal, especially if someone had been hurt!
Once detectives could use this Uhlenhuth test to see what type of blood they found, people couldn't hide out and lie if someone found a blood stain as evidence of a crime.

One of the most important things about forensic science is finding clues or evidence, and testing to see if people are telling the truth.

(from: wikipedia - blood test)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Combustion Chamber

Wednesday, May 8, 2019

Darth Vader Jellyfish

We just learned about the Atolla Jellyfish that lives in the deep sea and flashes blue lights.

Another type of jelly is the Darth Vader Jellyfish, also called the bathykorus bouilloni.
It gets the long name from bathy which means "deep" and korus which means "helment", and the scientist Dr. Jean Bouillon who found it.

Because it looks kind of like Darth Vader's helmet, sometimes people call it the Darth Vader jellyfish instead!

This jelly lives very deep in the sea, at around 1,000 meters!
It is very small, only about 2 centimeters wide.
The bell is see through and pale blue, and it has eight tentacles for stinging.
They live mostly around Greenland and Canada.

Because these jellies live so deep, people can not swim down and see them, they can only be seen by robotic submarines that people send deep into the ocean with cameras on them to look around.

(from: wikipedia - bathykorus)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Red Cuttlefish

Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Palatal Rugae

We just learned about the soft part on the roof of the mouth called the Soft Palate.

Another part of the top of the mouth is the Palatal Rugae.

These are the little ridges on the top of the mouth behind the teeth.
Because of the way they are shaped, they help move food toward the back of the mouth.

Palatal means it is on the hard palate in the mouth, and the word rugae (sounds like roo-gah-ee) means ridges.

(from: wikipedia - rugae)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Human Mouth

Monday, May 6, 2019


We've already learned about parts of the tops of castles, like the Wall Walk where people can walk along the edge of the castle behind a wall, the Parapet which is a short wall and the Crenel which is a small gap in the wall.

Another part of a wall walk on the castle is the Merlon.

This is the opposite of the crenel, and is a higher part of the wall where people can hide behind.
So usually castles would have merlons and crenels right next to each other, so they could hide behind the merlon and attack people from the crenels.

Having a bunch of crenels and merlons right after each other is called crenellation.

(from: wikipedia - merlon)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bodiam Castle

Sunday, May 5, 2019

Constantine the Great

We just learned about the Battle of Milvan Bridge where Emperor Constantine saw a vision of God.

The Emperor Constantine was the first emperor to become a Christian.
He tried to bring all of Rome together and be the only emperor, and also changed the laws so people could worship however they wanted.

During his time he also had many battles, and used the Chi-Rho symbol on his army, and he believed it was God helping lead him into battle.

Because he helped Christianity and was the first Christian emperor, he later on was called Constantine the Great.

Under Constantine's rule, the Roman empire went all the way up to England, Spain, France, all the way over to Greece, Turkey and Israel, and even covered the northern part of Africa, like Egypt.

(from: wikipedia - constantine the great)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nicolaus

Saturday, May 4, 2019

Banteay Srei Sculptures

We just learned about the Taj Mahal.

Anther place with a lot of history in sculpture is the country of Cambodia.
This is in southeast Asia, and long ago was part of a land called the Khmer empire.

In the 10th century, there was a temple called the Banteay Srei built in the city of Angkor.
It has many stone cut sculptures all over it, made mostly from red sandstone that was very easy to cut.

(from: wikipedia - banteay srei)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Six Ritual Jades - Bi

Friday, May 3, 2019

Norwegian - Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday

We just learned in Norwegian that to say his face is rough is Ansiktet hans er grovt

Let's learn the days of the week in Norwegian!

Monday - Mandag - Sounds like mah-n-dah
Tuesday - Tirsdag - Sounds like tee-sh-dah
Wednesday - Onsdag - Sounds like oh-n-s-dah

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: Δευτέρα (Deftéra), Τρίτη (Tríti), Τετάρτη (Tetárti)

ASL: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday

Italian: Lunedi, Martedì, Mercoledì

German: Montag, Dienstag, Mittwoch

Spanish: Lunes, Martes, Miercoles

French: Lundi, Mardi, Mercredi