Friday, October 18, 2019

Russian - Hello and Goodbye

We've now learned a whole year of Norwegian!

Let's try another language now, how about Russian?

This is the language of the people of Russia, where over 250 million people speak the language.
A lot of the other countries near Russia also speak it, like Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, and a bunch of other countries.

Russia uses a different alphabet than English, using letters called Cyrillic.

There are some letters that look and sound almost the same, like A and T.
But there are some that are very different like the letter Я which sounds like "ya" or the letter Ш that sounds like "sh"
Let's learn how to say hello and goodbye in Russian!

There are a few ways to say Hello.

Hi - Привет (privet) - Sounds like p-dee-v-yet
This is like saying Hi to your friends.

Hello - Здравствуй (Zdravstvuy) - Sounds like z-d-rah-v-st-voo-ee
This is like saying hello to a grownup, or someone you are meeting for the first time.

There are a few ways to say Goodbye also.

Bye - Пока (poka) - Sounds like pah-kah
This is just like saying bye to your friends.

Good Bye - до свидания (do svidaniya) - Sounds like dah s-vee-dah-n-yah
This is like saying goodbye to people you don't know really well, or to grownups to show respect.

russian language
(from: wikipedia - russian academy of sciences)

Norwegian: Hei, Hallo, Ha det, Ha det brah

Greek: Γειά σου (Geiá sou), Χαίρετε (Chairete), Αντίο (Antío)

ASL: Hello and Goodbye

Italian: Ciao, arrivederci

German: Hallo, Auf Wiedersehen

Spanish: Hola! Adiós!

French: Bonjour! Au Revoir!

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Linear Actuator

We just learned about the Rack and Pinion gears.

Another type of thing used in machines is a Linear Actuator.

The word actuator really just means "mover" and there are lots of types of actuators out there.
Linear means moving in a straight line.

So a linear actuator is a type of machine that moves something in a straight line.
We learned before about rotors that spin around in circles in electric motors.
So this is different because it might be moving a rod up or down, back or forward but in a straight line.

Sometimes this is done by having a bolt or screw that has lines on it, and then a nut spinning around on the screw that makes the screw go up and down.
This is a roller screw linear actuator.

(from: wikipedia - linear actuator)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bellifortis Rockets

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Oral Arms

We just learned about the Manubrium mouth on a jellyfish.

Another part of a jellyfish's body is the Oral Arms.

We learned that the manubrium is the mouth.
The oral arms are connected to the manubrium, and they hang down below the jellyfish like tentacles.
When they sting an animal, the oral arms help bring the food up to their manubrium mouth so they can eat it.

(from: wikipedia - jellyfish)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cephalopod Funnel

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Aqueous Humour

We just learned about the Vitreous Body gel inside the eye.

Another part of the eye is the Aqueous Humour.

We know that the eye has different layers.
1 - On the very outside is the cornea, the clear part of the eye that you can touch with your finger.
2 - Then there is the pupil which is the hole letting light in, and the colored iris that helps control the size of the pupil.
3 - Behind those is the lens, which is like a magnifying glass that changes shape to help you focus.

In between those layers is some watery liquid that helps keep everything tightly held in place.
This is the Aqueous Humour, and you can think of it kind of like how a water balloon helps keeps the shape of the balloon.

Aqueous is because it is watery, and Humour means like a liquid.
So the name really means watery liquid.

(from: wikipedia - aqueous humour)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Odontoblast

Monday, October 14, 2019

Witch Tower

We just learned about the Trou de Loup trap.

Another part of a castle is a Witch Tower.

This was a tower in a castle that was used as a prison.
In the old times if the people thought someone might be a witch they would keep them locked up in the tower, which is where it got its name.

(from: wikipedia - witch tower)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Palace of Versailles

Sunday, October 13, 2019


We just learned about the wise man Saint Augustine of Hippo.

Another part of early Christianity is Mariology.

This is the study of Mary the mother of Jesus, and exactly who she was and how she gave birth to Jesus.

In 431 AD, a bunch of people met at the city of Ephesus, which is now in Turkey.
They met together because there were people who did not agree on what Mary should be called, and what Jesus was like as a baby.

Some people thought she should be called "Theotokos" which means Mother of God, and others thought she should be called "Christotokos" which means Mother of Christ.

This might not seem like a big deal, but at the time people were still arguing about whether Jesus was a God and Man as one person, or whether he was like a person who also had a separate God personality living inside him.

About 250 different church leaders showed up to argue about this, and they decided she should be called Theotokos, Mother of God.

After this time there were a lot of other people talking about who Mary was, and what her life was like, so this became known as the study of Mariology.

(from: wikipedia - mariology)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Apollos - Bishop of Cæsarea

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Teocalli of the Sacred War

We just learned about the ancient sculpture of The Wrestler.

Another ancient Mesoamerican work of art is the Teocalli of the Sacred War.

This is a stone sculpture that looks like a miniature sized Aztec temple.
Some people believe this was built to be a throne for the ruler of the Aztecs in the 1500s.

(from: wikipedia - teocalli of the sacred war)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tamamushi Shrine

Friday, October 11, 2019

Norwegian - Vegetables

We just learned how to say some fruits in Norwegian.

Let's learn how to say some vegetables.

carrot gulrot - sounds like goo-l-droh-t
corn mais - sounds like mah-ees
pea erter - sounds like ah-ter

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: καρότο (karóto), καλαμπόκι (kalampóki), μπιζέλι (bizéli)

ASL: carrot, corn, pea

Italian: carote, mais, piselli

German: Karotte, Mais, Erbse

Spanish: zanahoria, maíz, guisante

French: carotte, maïs, pois

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Rack and Pinion

We just learned about the Air Gap in a motor.

Another type of thing used in machines is the Rack and Pinion.

A pinion is a gear, which we learned is a circle with teeth on the end.
The rack is a long flat line that has teeth on it, that match up with the gear.

When the gear spins around, it goes along the rack one way or the other.
These can be used as pinion wheels for something like a train that goes along a rack track, or sometimes as a pinion wheel that climbs up and down a pole that has a rack on it.

(from: wikipedia - rack and pinion)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Shock Diamond

Wednesday, October 9, 2019


We just learned about the Gastrodermis that helps the jellyfish eat.

Another part of the jellyfish's body is the Manubrium.

This is a part that hangs down from the middle of the inside of the jellyfish.
They use it to eat, and also to get rid of waste.

(from: wikipedia - jellyfish)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Octopus Gills

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Vitreous Body

We just learned about the Macula in the back of the eye.

Another part of the human eye is the Vitreous Body.

Inside the eye, most of it is filled up with a kind of clear gooey gel.
It's clear like water, but is thicker almost like jelly.

This is called the vitreous body, or sometimes the vitreous humor.
It helps the eye keep its shape, and it helps keep the vision clear between the lens and the retina.

(from: wikipedia - vitreous body)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tooth Root

Monday, October 7, 2019

Trou de Loup

We just learned about the Abatis tree fortification.

Another type of fortification is the Trou de Loup, which is French for Wolf Hole.

This is a hole used as a trap that people would dig in front of the castle, and then cover up with something like straw or sticks so people didn't see it until they walked right on top of it.

(from: wikipedia - trou de loup)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Château de Chantilly

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Saint Augustine of Hippo

We just learned about the Saint Ninian in Scotland.

Another person from early Christianity is Saint Augustine of Hippo.

Saint Augustine wrote over 50 books, that helped Christians understand the Bible.

His most famous ones were:

- The City of God: In the year 410 the city of Rome was attacked and defeated by some other people who didn't believe in God. Many people were nervous that this would mean the end of Christianity, so he wrote this book to help give people hope.

- On Christian Teaching: This book helps people understand the books of the Bible, and tells Christian teachers and preachers how to teach the truth.

- Confessions: This was Saint Augustine's book about his own life, and how he became a Christian and asked for forgiveness.

He wrote many other books about things like the Trinity and about people needing free will to believe in God.

(from: wikipedia - augustine of hippo)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sosipater - Bishop of Iconium

Saturday, October 5, 2019

The Wrestler

We just learned about the Were-Jaguar Sculpture.

Another ancient Mesoamerican sculpture is The Wrestler.

This is a sculpture of a sitting man, made out of an igneous rock called basalt.

The man has his arms out and bent, and one leg forward and one leg back.
Because he looks like he is moving, some people thought it looked like he was getting ready to wrestle.
Historians don't think he was actually supposed to be a wrestler, but maybe someone doing a special ceremony.

This statue doesn't have special markings to say when it was made, so people are not really sure if it was made around 400 BC or around 1500 BC!

It was found in the Mexico state of Veracruz in 1933.

(from: wikipedia - the wrestler (sculpture))

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Shaka Triad of Hōryūji - Tori Busshi

Friday, October 4, 2019

Norwegian - Fruits

We just learned how to say some things to drink in Norwegian.

Let's learn how to say some fruits.

apple eple - sounds like eh-pleh
orange appelsin - sounds like ah-peh-l-seen
banana banan - sounds like bah-nah-n

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: μήλο (mílo), πορτοκάλι (portokáli), μπανάνα (banána)

ASL: apple, orange, banana

Italian: mela, orange, banana

German: Apfel, Orange, Banane

Spanish: manzana, naranja, banana

French: pomme, orange, banane

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Air Gap

We just learned about the Electromagnet.

Another part of the electric motor is the Air Gap.

We learned that the rotor is the part that spins around in the middle, and the stator is the part that is wrapped around it.

The very small space between the rotor and the stator is the air gap.

The smaller the air gap, the better the electric motor will work, but it also needs to be enough space that the rotor won't hit the stator as it is spinning around.

(from: wikipedia - electric motor)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Multistage Rocket

Wednesday, October 2, 2019


We just learned about the jellyfish Mesoglea underneath the bell.

Another part of a jellyfish's body is the Gastrodermis.

This is the part below the mesoglea.
The gastrodermis helps the jellyfish digest the food that gets brought up to their mouth.

(from: wikipedia - gastrodermis)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mantle

Tuesday, October 1, 2019


We just learned about the Sclera whites of the eyes.

Another part of the eye is the Macula.

This is an oval shaped darker spot on the retina in the back of the eye.
The macula helps you see very detailed colors in bright daylight.

If there is a big picture with lots of colors and shapes, your macula helps you see it all clearly.
Sometimes when people get old their macula doesn't work as well anymore, which can cause blurry vision.

(from: wikipedia - macula of retina)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Crown