Showing posts with label Human Body. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Human Body. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 21, 2018

Dental Notation - Palmer


We just learned about Dental Notation - ISO.

Another type of Dental Notation is Palmer Notation.

This uses the same idea where the number starts at the front and goes backward, but it also uses a little L shaped or corner shaped symbol (┘└ ┐┌) to show which part of the mouth the tooth is in.

So if a dentist wants to talk about the 4th tooth in the upper right part of the mouth, they would use 4┘



(from: wikipedia - palmer notation)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Ligament

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

Dental Notation - ISO


We just learned about Dental Notation - Universal Numbering.

Another way of numbering teeth is the ISO System or the International Standards Organization System, also called the FDI system.

This way of numbering teeth puts teeth in four different sections by number:
1 - top right
2 - top left
3 - bottom left
4 - bottom right

The teeth in those areas are numbered starting from the front with 1, and the numbers go up as you get toward the back.
So the top right front tooth is 1-1, and the top left front tooth is 2-1.
The top right back tooth is 1-7, and the top left back tooth is 2-7.
The bottom teeth go from 3-1 to 3-7, and 4-1 to 4-7.

Some dentists like this way of numbering tooth because they can easily split the mouth up into 4 parts.




(from: wikipedia - dental notation)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Collagen

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Dental Notation - Universal Numbering System


We just learned about Hypodontia.

When a dentist wants to look at your teeth, they give all your teeth a number so they can talk about which ones are healthy or have cavities.

This is called Dental Notation.

There are a few different ways that people number the teeth.
One way is called the Universal Numbering System

Sometimes a dentist will start with the upper right back adult or permanent tooth as #1 and then go 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 to the top middle, and 9,10,11,12,1314,15,16 to the top back left tooth.
Then next is the lower back left tooth at #17, and then toward the front 18,19,20,21,22,23,24.
From the front left around to the front right, 25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32.

Those are for the adult teeth.
If it's a primary or baby tooth, they use ABCDE from top right to top middle, and FGHIJ from top middle to top left.
KLMNO from bottom left to bottom middle, and PQRST from bottom middle to bottom right.


(from: wikipedia - universal numbering system)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tendon

Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Hypodontia


We just learned about the Supernumerary Teeth.

Another thing that can happen in the mouth is Hypodontia, which means teeth that are missing, that never grew in the mouth.

This means when a person grows up and for some reason some of their teeth never came in.
They could be missing molars or incisors or canines.

If a lot of teeth are missing, it is called oligodontia.
If someone is missing all of their teeth, it is called anodontia.


(from: wikipedia - hypodontia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Connective Tissue

Tuesday, July 24, 2018

Supernumerary Teeth


We just learned about the Wisdom Tooth.

Another set of teeth in the mouth are the Supernumerary Teeth or hyperdontia.

Usually grown up humans get up to 32 teeth.
Sometimes people don't get their last set of 4 molars, so they only have 28 teeth.
But sometimes people get even more teeth in places where they are not supposed to!

These are the supernumerary teeth, and they can show up as extra teeth anywhere in the mouth.
The most common place for them to show up is right by the maxillary central incisors, but sometimes they come up by the molars or somewhere else.


(from: wikipedia - hyperdontia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Eponychium and Cuticle

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Wisdom Tooth


We just learned about the Maxillary Second Molar.

The next tooth back in the mouth is the Wisdom Toothor Third Molar.

This tooth is a molar just like the first and second molars.
Many times there is not enough room in a person's mouth for these teeth, so a dentist or orthodontist will pull the teeth out.

If these teeth stay in the mouth, they can push up against the other teeth and hurt them.
Sometimes the gums in the mouth can get swollen or bruised by these teeth.




(from: wikipedia - wisdom tooth)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lunula

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

Maxillary Second Molar


We just learned about the Maxillary First Molar.

Another tooth is the Maxillary Second Molar.

These ones are just like the Maxillary First Molars, just further back on the jaw.
They have 4 cusps, and they work to help grind up the food.

Some people get another row of teeth behind these, but for other people these are the last teeth in the mouth.


(from: wikipedia - maxillary second molar)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nail Plate

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Maxillary First Molar


We just learned about the Maxillary Second Premolar.

Another tooth in the human mouth is the Maxillary First Molar.

These teeth have cusps or pointy parts on them like the bicuspids, but they have four points instead of the two of a bicuspid.
There are two cusps on the cheek side, and two on the tongue side.
Sometimes people have a fifth cusp called the Cusp of Carabelli.

Molars are used for grinding up food that is in the mouth.

There are primary or baby teeth molars, but those are replaced by premolars.
The adult molars show up further back in the jaw after the mouth gets big enough to have space for them.


(from: wikipedia - maxillary first molar)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nail Matrix

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Maxillary Second Premolar


We just learned about the Maxillary - First Premolar.

The next teeth in the mouth are the Maxillary Second Premolars.

These also have two "cusps" on them like the First Premolars, so they are also bicuspids.
They are not as pointy as the First Premolars, so they are used more for grinding up food than tearing it up.

Just like the First Premolars, there are no baby or primary premolars.
The Second Premolars come up in the place where the baby molars were at when they fall out.


(from: wikipedia - maxillary second premolar)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nails

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Maxillary First Premolar


We just learned about the Maxillary Canine.

Another tooth in the mouth is the Maxillary First Premolar, also sometimes called the bicuspids.

Just like the canine teeth had one "cusp" on them, these teeth have two cusps, which is why they are sometimes called bicuspids.

These teeth are used to help grind up the food in your mouth, but they also have sharp pointed ends so they can be used to bite down into food and help tear it up.

For baby or primary teeth, there are no premolars, only incisors, canines and molars.
When the first baby molar tooth comes out, the first premolar comes up in it's place.



(from: wikipedia - maxillary first premolar)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sweat Glands

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Maxillary Canine


We just learned about the Maxillary Lateral Incisor.

Another tooth is the Maxillary Canine, also sometimes called the cuspid.

These are the teeth right next to the front four incisors.
Remember starting from the middle, there are two of each type of teeth:
Central Incisors
Maxillary Lateral Incisors

The Maxillary Canines are a little different than the incisors, because they have a "cusp" on them, meaning they have pointed ends, almost like a dog's tooth.
That's really why they are called "canine" teeth, because canine is another word for a dog, and it you look in a dog's mouth you will see some very sharp pointy teeth!
It's also why sometimes they are called the "cuspid" teeth, because they have a cusp on them.

The canines are like a tooth that can work as an incisor to cut and tear food, but also like the bigger teeth that help you grind up and chew your food once it's in your mouth.

The canine is the longest tooth in the mouth.



(from: wikipedia - maxillary canine)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair - Sebaceous Gland

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Maxillary Lateral Incisor


We just learned about the Central Incisors.

The next set of teeth that show up in your mouth are the Maxillary Lateral Incisor.

These are right next to the two front teeth, one on either side.
Just like the central incisors they are used for cutting and biting things.



(from: wikipedia - maxillary lateral incisor)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair Muscle

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Central Incisors


We just learned about the Baby Teeth.

Usually the first baby teeth that people get are the Central Incisors.

Most babies start with two front bottom teeth, and then later the two front top teeth come in.
These incisors are made to be sharp and bite through things like carrots.


(from: wikipedia - maxillary central incisor)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair Root Sheath

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

Baby Teeth


We just started learned about human teeth!

Humans are usually born with no teeth, and around six months after they are born the teeth start to pop out!
We call these first teeth Baby Teeth, and they are also known as milk teeth, temporary teeth, primary teeth or deciduous teeth.

There are twenty baby teeth that come in, with ten on top and ten on bottom.
They usually start with the bottom middle ones, then the top middle and then next on the bottom and top until all twenty are in.

The baby teeth are very important, because they help keep the jaw strong and in the right place, and they are holding a place for the bigger adult teeth that come in later.


(from: wikipedia - deciduous teeth)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair Plexus

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Teeth


Let's keep learning about the Human Mouth.

Probably the most important part of your mouth is your Teeth.

An adult human can have up to 32 teeth, that's a lot of chompers!

People grow two sets of teeth, 20 baby teeth, and then those fall out and we get the grown up teeth.


(from: wikipedia - human tooth)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair Growth

Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Human Mouth


We've learned a lot about the Connective Tissue that holds all of our bones and muscles together!

Another part of the human body is the Mouth.

We might not think about it much, but there is a lot going on in the mouth.
We use it to eat, drink and breathe, and we also use it to make words when we talk, or make sounds like whistles clicking or snapping with our lips and tongue.

From our teeth, to our lips and tongue, there are a lot of things to take care of in our mouths, and the professional person we go to see that takes care of our mouth is usually a dentist.

There are also orthodontists who work on moving teeth around, periodontists who work on the bones supporting the teeth, endodontists who specialize on the inside of the tooth, prosthodontists who work on building replacement teeth, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons who work on the areas around the jaw.


(from: wikipedia - dentist)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair Follicle

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Interphalangeal Ligaments


We just learned about the Metatarsal Ligaments.

Another set of connective tissue is the Interphalangeal Ligaments.

These are the ligaments that go underneath (plantar) and on the sides (collateral) of each toe.


(from: wikipedia - interphalangeal joints of foot)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hair

Tuesday, April 24, 2018

Metatarsal Ligaments


We just learned about the Distal Intertarsal Ligaments.

Another group of connective tissue in the foot is called the Metatarsal ligaments.

The metatarsal bones are the long bones in your foot between your ankle and your toes.
There are five metatarsal bones, one for each toe.

The metatarsals have ligaments connecting them to the ankle bones, to each other, and to the toe bones.


- Tarsometatarsal - Connects the tarsus (ankle) to the metatarsals (foot) on plantar (bottom) and dorsal (top).

- Intermetatarsal - Connects the metatarsal (foot) bones to themselves, on dorsal (top), plantar (bottom) and interosseous (in between) and transverse (across).

- Metatarsophalangeal - Connects the metatarsal (foot) bones to the phalanges (toe) bones, on plantar (bottom) and side (collateral).


(from: wikipedia - tarsometatarsal joints)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Adnexa

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Distal Intertarsal Ligaments


We just learned about the Transverse Tarsal Ligaments.

Another group of ligaments in the foot is the Distal Intertarsal Ligaments.

Just like the transverse tarsal ligaments, these connect the foot bones in your foot together.
Even though your foot is not that big, there are seven bones from your heel to the middle of your foot, and that doesn't even include the longer bones in your foot that connect to your toes!

The distal intertarsal ligaments connect the bones that are past your heel and your main foot bone. The 3 cuneiform bones, the navicular bone and the cuboid bone are the smaller bones right before the longer metatarsal bones in your foot.

They are named for plantar (bottom), dorsal (top) or inter/interosseous (in between).
Cuneonavicular - Connects your cuneiform to navicular. (plantar and dorsal)
Cuboideonavicular - Connects your cuboid to navicular. (plantar and dorsal)
Intercuneiform - Connects your 3 cuneiform bones together. (plantar, dorsal and interosseous)


(from: wikipedia - plantar calcaneonavicular)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hypodermis

Tuesday, April 10, 2018

Transverse Tarsal Ligaments


We just learned about the Talocalcaneal Ligaments.

Another bunch of ligaments are the Transverse Tarsal Ligaments.

These are the ligaments that tie a bunch of foot bones together:
- Calcaneus: heel bone
- Talus: ankle bone
- Navicularis: top of foot bone
- Cuboid: outside of foot bone

Remember the location words, like dorsal means on top, plantar means on bottom, bifurcated means split into two.

There are 7 ligaments that tie all these together.
- dorsal talonavicular: Connects the talus to the navicularis on the top.
- plantar calcaneonavicular: Connects the calcaneus to the navicularis on the bottom.
- bifurcated (calcaneonavicular): Splits into two and connects the calcaneus to the navicularis in the middle.
- dorsal calcaneocuboid: Connects the calcaneus to the cuboid on the top.
- long plantar: Connects the calcaneus to the cuboid on the bottom. It is the longest of the foot ligaments.
- plantar calcaneocuboid: Connects the calcaneus to the cuboid on the bottom. It is shorter than the long plantar and connects at a different spot.
- bifurcated (calcaneocuboid): Splits into two and connects the calcaneus to the cuboid bone in the middle.


(from: wikipedia - plantar calacneonavicular ligament)


(from: wikipedia - navicular bone)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Dermis