Showing posts with label Human Body. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Human Body. Show all posts

Tuesday, May 4, 2021

Avoiding Apoptosis


We just learned about the Anti-Growth Signals of cancer, where the cells won't listen to the body telling them to stop.

Another part of cancer is Avoiding Apoptosis.

All of the cells in our body are created, live for a while and then go away.
Apoptosis is the part at the end of a cell's life where it would die and go away.

In a cancer cell, it doesn't listen to the body telling it that it's time to go away, and so they avoid apoptosis.
These cells that are not working right do not go away, and then the body can be flooded with the wrong types of cells.


(from: wikipedia - apoptosis)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Canthus

Tuesday, April 27, 2021

Anti-Growth Signals


We just learned about the Cell Growth and Division where cells get bigger, multiply and don't go away.

Another one of the six signs of cancer is called Anti-Growth Signals.

When the cells in the body grow or multiply, and don't die off or go away, the body uses things called "tumor supressor genes" to send messages to the cells saying that it is time to stop growing and dividing, and to go away.

It's kind of like being in a car, going too fast, and you hit the brakes to slow down or stop.

Cells that have been mutated into cancer don't listen to those messages and they keep growing.
This would be like the brakes in the car not working, so it keeps going too fast.

If the cancer cells in the body do not listen, the cells can grow and divide and spread over the body.


(from: wikipedia - tumor suppressor gene)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Meibomian Gland

Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Cell Growth


We just learned a little about Malignant Tumor.

One of the six signs of Cancer is Cell Growth.

Usually in the human body, cells are created, they grow a little, and then they either split up into more cells, or they go away.
Sometimes cells don't do what they are supposed to, and they don't go away.
They just keep getting bigger and bigger, or keep dividing but not going away.
That can be a sign that makes some of the tumors we've learned about.


(from: wikipedia - cell growth)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Epicanthic Fold

Tuesday, April 13, 2021

Malignant Tumor


We just learned about the Benign Tumor.

Another part of a disease is a Malignant Tumor.

Remember that a tumor or neoplasm is really just a bunch of extra cells that the body made that aren't supposed to be there.

Malignant means bad, so it is a bad tumor that is causing problems in the body.

A malignant tumor is also called cancer.
The human body makes new cells all the time, but the cells are supposed to live for a while, do their job and then go away.

Malignant tumors have many new cells that are not made right, and they also don't go away and continue to grow.
They can get in the way of other parts of the body like blood vessels, and they can spread to other parts of the body.

The name Cancer actually comes from the Greek word for crab "καρκίνος" (karkinos), because early Greek doctors thought a swollen tumor looked almost like the color of a crab.


(from: wikipedia - cancer)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Eyelids

Tuesday, April 6, 2021

Benign Tumor


We just learned about the Neoplasm.

Another thing that happens to the human body is a Benign tumor.

Remember that a neoplasm is really just a bunch of extra cells that the body made that aren't supposed to be there.
Sometimes they are a lump you can see on the outside of someone's body, and sometimes they are inside the body on the organs.

If a tumor is staying where it is at, and is not spreading through the body then it is called benign.
That usually means it is not very bad and is not hurting a person.


(from: wikipedia - benign tumor)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nasolacrimal Duct

Tuesday, March 30, 2021

Neoplasm


We just learned about Lymphoma.

Another part of the cancer disease is a Neoplasm, also sometimes called a tumor.

Sometimes on a person's skin they get a lump that grows bigger than the skin around it.
Other times a lump grows inside a person's body on one of their organs like their intestines or lungs.

These growing lumps are not a part of the way the body normally grows, so doctors will take a look at them and see if they could turn into something like cancer.
If the lump is bad, a lot of times they will do surgery to remove them.

The word neoplasm comes from the word "neo" which means new, and "plasm" which means the liquid or gooey fat in the body.
So it basically means a new growth of something.


(from: wikipedia - neoplasm)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lacrimal Sac

Tuesday, March 23, 2021

Lymphoma


We just learned about the Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

Another type of cancer that happens in blood cells is called Lymphoma.

This type of cancer usually is when there is a problem with the lymph nodes that are all over the body.
Lymph nodes are normally small, but with this type of cancer they will swell up and don't work right anymore.

The two most common types of lymphoma are called Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Sometimes to get better a person will have to go through chemotherapy, which is a type of treatment where they use radiation to try and help.

(from: wikipedia - lymphoma)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lacrimal Ducts

Tuesday, March 16, 2021

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia


We just learned about the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Another type of leukemia is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

We've learned about ALL, AML, and CLL.

The fourth type of leukemia is CML, meaning it is chronic and myelogenous.

Remember that the chronic means that it is slow moving, and the myelogenous means that the kind of white blood calls that are having problems are neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

When the body makes these myeloid cells, they don't go through the normal life cycle and go away, and the body ends up having too many of those cells.


(from: wikipedia - chronic myelogenous leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lacrimal Punctum

Tuesday, March 9, 2021

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia


We just learned about the type of leukemia called Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Another type of leukemia is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Remember we learned that Chronic means the leukemia spreads slower, and the problem is with the lymphocytes.

We know lymphocyte white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.

They start as stem cells, then turn into something called lymphoblasts, then later turn into lymphocytes, and then later turn into B-Cells, T-Cells or NK Cells.

The human body is only supposed to have so many B, T or NK cells, and only so many lymphoblasts.

With CLL, the problem is with the body making too many B cells that are not healthy.

This can cause people to have large lymph nodes, or lower amounts of red blood cells, neutrophils, or platelets.
A person will sometimes get fevers, night sweats, lose weight or feel tired all the time.


(from: wikipedia - chronic lymphocytic leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lacrimal Gland

Tuesday, March 2, 2021

Acute Myeloid Leukemia


We just learned about the type of leukemia called Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

If the Leukemia is Acute and Myeloid, it is called Acute Myeloid Leukemia or AML for short.


We know white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
The myeloid white blood cells are the ones that turn into neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, or monocytes that we've learned about.

They start as stem cells, then turn into something called myeloid blasts, then later turn into these other types of cells.

The human body is only supposed to have so many of each type of cell, and only so many myeloid blasts.

With AML, the body makes too many myeloid blasts over and over, they don't turn into any of the other types of cells, and the myeloid blasts cause problems in the human body like getting infections, having fevers, getting lots of bruises, and tiredness.

Chemotherapy is one of the ways to try and beat this cancer, which is a type of radiation that tries to kill the bad cells.


(from: wikipedia - acute myeloid leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Depth Perception

Tuesday, February 23, 2021

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


We've learned about the different types of Leukemia, whether it is Acute or Chronic, and whether it is Lymphoblastic or Myelogenous.

If the Leukemia is Acute and Lymphoblastic, it is called Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or ALL for short.

We know lymphocyte white blood cells are made in the bone marrow.

They start as stem cells, then turn into something called lymphoblasts, then later turn into lymphocytes, and then later turn into B-Cells, T-Cells or NK Cells.

The human body is only supposed to have so many B, T or NK cells, and only so many lymphoblasts.

With ALL, the body makes too many lymphoblasts over and over, they don't turn into B, T or NK cells, and the lymphoblasts cause problems in the human body like tiredness, pale skin, fever, bleeding, bruising, enlarged lymph nodes, or bone pain.

Chemotherapy is one of the ways to try and beat this cancer, which is a type of radiation that tries to kill the bad cells.


(from: wikipedia - acute lymphoblastic leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rapid Eye Movement

Tuesday, February 16, 2021

Lymphoblastic or Myelogenous Leukemia


We just learned about the Acute or Chronic Leukemia.

Another part of the Leukemia disease is whether it is Lymphoblastic or Myelogenous Leukemia.

If the leukemia is lymphoblastic, that means the problem is with the type of white blood cells called lymphocytes, usually the B cell lymphocytes.

If it is myelogenus, the problem is usually with red blood cells, some white blood cells, and some platelets.


(from: wikipedia - leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Smooth Pursuit

Tuesday, February 9, 2021

Acute or Chronic Leukemia


We just learned a little about Leukemia.

Let's learn about Acute or Chronic Leukemia.

Remember we learned that there are 4 main kinds of Leukemia:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

The "Acute" or "Chronic" word at the beginning of the disease has to do with what kinds of blood cells are going bad, and how fast the leukemia is spreading.

Acute leukemia is very fast, and is made up of immature blood cells.
Chronic leukemia spreads slower, and is made up of mostly mature blood cells that are just not made right.


(from: wikipedia - acute lymphoblastic leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Saccade

Tuesday, February 2, 2021

Leukemia


We just learned a little about Blood Cancer.

One of the three types of blood cancer is called Leukemia.

The word leukemia comes from the words for white and blood, because this is a cancer of the white blood cells.

This disease usually starts in the bone marrow where all of the blood cells are being made.
A type of blood cells called blasts that are not totally made right start getting made in the bone marrow and sent around the body.

These blasts take the place of normal healthy blood cells and then the body gets sick because it doesn't have the right kinds of blood cells doing the right jobs.

There are 4 main kinds of leukemia:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

The different types of leukemia depend on which types of blood cells are having problems, and how fast the cancer is spreading.


(from: wikipedia - leukemia)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Peripheral Vision

Tuesday, January 26, 2021

Blood Cancer


We just learned about the Epitope that the body looks at to find diseases.

Even though we've learned about all of the amazing things the human body does to fight off pathogens or diseases, sometimes the human body still gets sick.

Sometimes things go wrong with the blood cells we've learned about, with something called Blood Cancer.

Cancer is a disease that can affect any type of the body, from the bone to skin to brain.

Blood cancer has three different kinds: Leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma.

One of the ways that people test for these diseases is counting the number of each of the types of blood cells, from leukoctyes to lymphocytes to B cells.

The human body is supposed to have a certain number of each type of cells, and if the count is wrong then it can tell doctors something is wrong.


(from: wikipedia - tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Field of View

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

Epitope


We just learned about the Paratope.

Another part of the immune system is an Epitope.

Just like we learned that the paratope is part of the antibody that is like the lock, the epitope is the part of the antigen that is like the key.

The antibody lock goes around looking for an antigen key to match.
So the paratopes look for epitopes to match.


(from: wikipedia - epitope)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Central Retinal Vein

Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Paratope


We just learned about the Antibody that helps find and get rid of pathogen diseases.

Another part of the immune system is the Paratope.

We learned about how the antibody is like a detective with a lock looking for the antigen with the right key.

The paratope is the part of the antibody that is like the lock.
They are made up of chemicals in the body that the antibody uses to find diseases.


(from: wikipedia - paratope)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Central Retinal Artery

Tuesday, January 5, 2021

Antibody


We just learned about the Antigens that are like signs on pathogen diseases showing what kind of disease they are.

Another part of the immune system is the Antibody.

The antibody is the part of the body that looks for those signs on the antigens to get rid of them.

There are all different types of antibodies, and each one is built like a detective looking for a different type of bad disease.

The antibodies are built in a Y shape, and work with antigens like a lock and key.

If the antibody lock matches the antigen key, then the antibody gets to work getting rid of that antigen to kill the disease.


(from: wikipedia - antibody)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Optic Disc

Tuesday, December 29, 2020

Antigen


We just learned about the Pathogen.

Another part of how the body fights sickness is an Antigen, also called "Ag".

An antigen is a part of a pathogen disease that the body can use to figure out what kind of disease it is.
It's almost like the disease is wearing a type of sign, mark or color that tells the body what it is.

Once the body knows what kind of disease it is, it can use the right types of white blood cells like T cells or NK cells to go kill the bad disease.

The antigens are made up of things called proteins, peptines or polysaccarides.
Those are just fancy words for chemicals on a disease that look like a sign to our virus fighting immune system.


(from: wikipedia - antigen)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Opthalmic Artery

Tuesday, December 22, 2020

Pathogen


We just learned about the Thymus.

All of these parts of the lymphatic system help fight against bad things called Pathogens.

A pathogen is a living thing that can cause you to get sick.
It could be a virus, bacteria or other type of living thing that can get into your body.

The different types of cells in the lymphatic system like T cells or all work together to fight these pathogens, and keep your body healthy.

The science of these living things is called a microbioly, and the science for how these living things can hurt the body is called pathology.
(from: wikipedia - pathogen)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Eye Movement