## Thursday, January 31, 2013

### Binary

We just learned about And Or Logic Gates.

When we talk about letters and words, we know that A is a letter,
and Apple is a word with the letters A, p, p, l, e.

For numbers, instead of saying letters we call them digits So the number 174 has the digits 1, 7, 4.

The numbers we use every day go from 0 to 9.
The digits are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
(The number 10 uses the digits 1 and 0.)

Since there are ten digits, we use the word decimal.

What if we only had two digits to use, 0 and 1?

Could we still make numbers?
Yes!

We can make the numbers: 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111 and so on!
Since we're only using 2 digits, we use the word binary (like bicycle which has two wheels)

When we want to match up our decimal numbers to our binary numbers,
we just put them in the same order.

binary 0, 1, 10, 11 is the same as decimal 0, 1, 2, 3
So b0 = d0, b1 = d1, b2 = d10, b3 = d11 and so on!

We already learned about how computers use 1 and 0 to turn lights on and off on your computer screen.

The whole computer uses just binary numbers to do all the math to turn those switches on and off.

Just think, giving a computer a number like: 1110 can be like telling it to turn 3 lights on, and the other one off!

(from: wikipedia - binary number)

## Wednesday, January 30, 2013

### Coyote yips

We just learned about the Komodo Dragon.

Coyotes are animals like dogs that live in North and Central America.

(from: wikipedia - coyote)

They are mostly nocturnal which means they sleep during the day
and hunt for food at night.

Even though a coyote is like a dog, their howl doesn't sound like a dog or wolf howl.
It's a very high sound, and can almost sound like a bird, and some people say it sounds like yip yip or yi-yi

## Tuesday, January 29, 2013

### Patella

The patella is the kneecap bone, right at the bottom of your femur.

(from: wikipedia - patella)

It is the small bone right at the point of your knee.

## Monday, January 28, 2013

### Prime Meridian

We just learned about the Arctic Ocean

We learned that the middle of the earth halfway between North and South
is called the equator.

If we want to draw a line like that from the top of the map to the bottom,
to split it into East and West we use the Prime Meridian.

(from: wikipedia - prime meridian)

The main location on the map where the prime meridian is marked is a place called
the Royal Observatory Greenwich, in London England.

## Sunday, January 27, 2013

### Apostle's Creed - Part 8

Apostle's Creed - we're getting there!

We've learned through Part 7 now.

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, and born of the virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried.
He descended into hell. On the third day He rose again from the dead.
He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.
From thence He will come to judge the living and the dead.

Here's part 8:

I believe in the Holy Spirit,

(from: wikipedia - apostle's creed)

The Holy Spirit lives inside of us, and helps us to make the right decisions in life and to understand God's word.

## Saturday, January 26, 2013

### Planet Mercury

We just learned about ISS - International Space Station.

We know that to remember the eight planets in our solar system we can remember the words:
My very educated mother just served us nachos.

The My in that sentence is for the planet Mercury.

(from: wikipedia - mercury (planet)

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun,
and it's also the smallest of all the eight planets.

Earth orbits around the sun every year, which is 365 days.
Mercury's orbit or year is only 88 days!

The planet has very strange days too.
It takes two whole Mercury years for it to finish one whole day and night.

That means it's daytime and sunny for a whole 88 days (3 months!)
and then totally dark for another 88 days.

## Friday, January 25, 2013

### French - Black, white, brown, gray

We learned that red orange and yellow, in French is rouge orange and jaune.
and green, blue, purple and pink is vert, bleu, violet and rose.

Let's learn even more!

Black - noir - sounds like no-ah /?/
White - blanc - sounds like blonk /?/
Brown - brun - sounds like buh-ahn/?/
Gray - gris - sounds like guh-ee /?/

## Thursday, January 24, 2013

### And Or logic gates

Last time we learned about true and false
and how they worked in computers like On and Off switches
turning thousands of light bulbs on and off.

(from: wikipedia - incandescent light bulb)

Now think about what would happen if you had two light switches
called switch A and switch B,
and they were hooked up to the same light bulb.

(from: wikipedia - light switch)

Would you have to have both switches set to ON for it to turn on?
Or is just one good enough?

In computers and electronics, we call that using AND and OR.
So if you need both light switches ON to turn on one light bulb,
that means you need A AND B on.

If the light will turn ON with either switch,
that means A OR B.

When people draw out the AND and OR in pictures,
they sometimes call them logic gates. There are different pictures for an AND gate and an OR gate.

The AND gate sort of looks like a big letter D.

(from: wikipedia - and gate)

The OR gate sort of looks like a spaceship!

(from: wikipedia - OR)

Using those logic gates like switches to turn on and off light bulbs,
you can draw up big pictures that can be used as instructions for building a computer!

(from: wikipedia - logic diagram)

## Wednesday, January 23, 2013

### Komodo Dragon

We just learned about the Camel Humps.

The dragons you read about in stories aren't real,
but there is a real animal called the Komodo Dragon.

(from: wikipedia - komodo dragon)

It's the largest kind of lizard in the world,
and can grow to be up to 10 feet long!

That means if they stood on their tail
their nose could touch the rim of a basketball hoop!

## Tuesday, January 22, 2013

### Femur

The hip bone or pelvis connects to the thigh bone of your leg,
which is called the femur.

The femur is the longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the human body.

(from: wikipedia - femur)

## Monday, January 21, 2013

### Arctic ocean

We've learned about four other oceans so far,
in order of largest to smallest they are:
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern oceans.

The last one is the Arctic ocean

It's the ocean at the very top of the earth, where the North Pole is.

(from: wikipedia - arctic ocean)

## Sunday, January 20, 2013

### Apostle's Creed - Part 7

We just learned about the Apostle's Creed Part 6.

Apostle's Creed

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, and born of the virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried.
He descended into hell. On the third day He rose again from the dead.
He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

Here's part 7:

From thence He will come to judge the living and the dead.

(from: wikipedia - apostle's creed)

## Saturday, January 19, 2013

### ISS - International Space Station

We just learned about the Apollo 11 Moon Landing.

Right now up in outer space, there is a space station where astronauts can go and stay for days, weeks, even months!

(from: wikipedia - International Space Station)

It's called the International Space Station, or ISS for short.

Both Russia and the USA worked together to build the space station.

## Friday, January 18, 2013

### French - Green, blue, purple, pink

Last time we learned red orange and yellow,
in French is rouge orange and jaune.

Green - vert - sounds like vay-uh /?/
Blue - bleu - sounds like blue /?/
Purple - violet - sounds like vee-oh-lay /?/
Pink - rose - sounds like oo-ohs /?/

## Thursday, January 17, 2013

### Boolean True False

We just learned about the colors in ROY G BIV.

You probably already know this, but True is a way of saying Yes.
and False is the opposite and means No.

A fancy word for True and False is Boolean
named after the famous mathemetician George Boole.

In computers and electronics, it's kind of like you're looking at a light bulb.
If the light bulb is ON, you can call that True or Yes or even the number 1.
Is the light bulb is OFF, you can call it False or No or the number 0.

(from: wikipedia - light bulb)

Inside computers the electricity that runs the computer has thousands
or even millions of little ones and zeroes, meaning True and False.

These little light bulbs are what make the pictures on your computer screen
and the light switches come from things like your keyboard and mouse.

You can imagine a room just filled with light bulbs and light switches,
and that's exactly what some of the oldest computers (like the ENIAC) looked like!

(from: wikipedia - eniac)

## Wednesday, January 16, 2013

### Camel humps

We just learned about Rhino Teeth and Horns.

There are two kinds of camels in the world, the kind with one hump and the kind with two humps.

One hump camels are called dromedary camels.

(from: wikipedia - camel)

Two hump camels are called bactrian camels.

In the old days, people thought camels just stored big bags of water inside their humps.
In a way that's right, because they're actually big piles of fat.

When the camels exercise or do something to burn that fat,
their body turns the fat into energy and water that helps keep the camel from drying up in the hot weather.

## Tuesday, January 15, 2013

### Pelvis, hip bone

We just learned about the Coccyx Bone.

At the base of the spine, the sacrum is connected to the pelvis, or hip bone.

The pelvic bone is made up of three parts, the ilium, ischium and pubis.

(from: wikipedia - hip bone)

The ilium is the hip bone part you can feel on your side.
The ischium is the bone that you sit on, right on either side of your bottom.
The pubis is right in the middle below your tailbone.

## Monday, January 14, 2013

### Southern ocean

Ok so in order of size so far we've learned about the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Next up is the Southern ocean

It's the ocean at the very bottom of the earth, right around Antarctica.

(from: wikipedia - southern ocean)

## Sunday, January 13, 2013

### Apostle's Creed - Part 6

We just learned Part 5 of the Apostle's Creed.

Let's keep learning it!

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, and born of the virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried.
He descended into hell. On the third day He rose again from the dead.

Here's part 6:

He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.

(from: wikipedia - apostle's creed)

After Jesus came back to life and appeared to the apostles, he went up into heaven to be with God the Father.

## Saturday, January 12, 2013

### Apollo 11 Moon Landing

We just learned about the Ranger - 4 Spacecraft.

First we launched satellites into outer space.
Then we sent people up to orbit the earth.
Next we sent a spacecraft with no people to land on the moon.

So who was the first to put a person on the moon?
The Apollo 11 mission by the United States was the first manned spacecraft to land on the moon,
on July 20th 1969.

(from: wikipedia - apollo 11)

The two astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first astronauts to ever set foot on the moon.

When Neil Armstrong first put his foot on the moon he said the famous words:
That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.

Wow!

Isn't it just amazing to look up into space at the moon and know that someone actually walked on it?

## Friday, January 11, 2013

### French - Red, orange, yellow

We learned our French alphabet, now let's learn some colors!

Red - rouge - sounds like woozhe /?/

Orange - orange - sounds like oo-ahnj /?/

Yellow - jaune - sounds like zhoin /?/

## Thursday, January 10, 2013

### ROY G BIV

Remember we learned before about measuring waves using wavelength.

(from: wikipedia sine)

And we learned that how often something happens in a given amount of time is called a frequency.

(from: wikipedia - frequency)

Well did you know that the colors of the rainbow are all different because of their wavelength and frequency?

For example, the color red has a very long wavelength, and a very low frequency.
But the color violet has a very short wavelength, and a very high frequency.

That's why the colors of the rainbow are in the order they are,
and why we put them in the order of ROY G BIV.

Red is the longest wavelength and lowest frequency.
Violet is the shortest wavelength and highest frequency.
Green is right in the middle.

Sometimes it's easier to understand by looking,
so here's a good picture that helps show how the different colors have different wavelengths and frequencies:

## Wednesday, January 9, 2013

### Rhino teeth and horns

We just learned a little about Otter Noses and Ears.

Even though rhinos have huge horns and big feet, it's interesting to know that they don't have any front teeth!

(from: wikipedia - rhinocerous)

Rhinos only eat plants, and they use their large back teeth to grind up the plants they eat.

Their horns aren't made up of bone like you might think, they're made of keratin,
the same type of thing our hair and fingernails are made of.
So their horn is like one huge really tough fingernail!

A group of rhinos is called a crash which makes sense!
They can also be called a herd.

## Tuesday, January 8, 2013

### Coccyx

Last we learned about the sacrum which connects to the lumbar vertebrae.

Below the sacrum, and the last part of the spine
is the coccyx (sounds like cock-six)
Sometimes it's also called the tail bone.

It is made up of three to five bones that curve forward toward the front of your body.

(from: wikipedia - coccyx)

## Monday, January 7, 2013

### Indian ocean

The two big oceans we learned about already were the Atlantic ocean and Pacific ocean.

Another ocean that's located in between Africa, India and Australia
is called the Indian Ocean.

(from: wikipedia - indian ocean)

It's the third largest ocean.

## Sunday, January 6, 2013

### Apostle's Creed - part 5

We just learned up through Part 4 of the Apostle's Creed.

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, and born of the virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried.

Here's part 5:

He descended into hell. On the third day He rose again from the dead.

(from: wikipedia - apostle's creed)

After Jesus died on the cross, he went to hell because of the sins he carried on his shoulders for us.
But because he was God's son, he defeated death and hell and came back to life.

## Saturday, January 5, 2013

### Ranger 4 - First American spacecraft on the moon

We've learned that the first spacecraft to land on the moon was the Luna 2, by the Russians.

The first American spacecraft to land on the moon was the Ranger 4 on April 23, 1962.

(from: wikipedia - ranger 4)

## Friday, January 4, 2013

### French Alphabet - V W X Y Z

We already learned French A B C D E F G, H I J K L M N, and O P Q R S T U
now let's learn the last letters:

V - Sounds like vay
W - Sounds like doo bluh vay
X - Sounds like eeks
Y - Sounds like ee guh dake
Z - Sounds like zed

So all together, let's say it!
You can try singing it to the alphabet song.

ah, bay, say, day, uh, eff, zhay
ah-sh, ee, zhee, kah
el, em, en, oh, pay
coo, ay-uh, ess
tay, oo, vay
doo bluh vay, eeks, ee guh dake, zed

Now you know your French ABCs!

To hear the letters, visit FrenchSpanish Online's alphabet page

## Thursday, January 3, 2013

### Frequency

We just learned about Waves and Wavelength.

Frequency means the number of times that something happens during a certain length of time.

So for example, if you clap your hands 3 times,
then 3 is the number of times

If you count out 10 seconds,
that is the length of time.

If you clap your hands 3 times while you count out 10 seconds,
then 3 over 10 is the frequency.

You can write it like 3/10.

If you clap your hands 7 times in that 10 seconds, that's 7/10, which is a higher frequency
If you clap your hands just 1 time in that 10 seconds, that's 1/10, which is a lower frequency

We can use frequency to measure lots of things from music to heart beats to airplanes!

(from: wikipedia - frequency)

Sometimes we also use the word occurrences instead of saying number of times.

## Wednesday, January 2, 2013

### Otter noses and ears

We just learned a little about Snails.

River otters love to swim when they're hunting for food or just playing.
They can stay underwater for 4 minutes!

When they're underwater, they have special skin flaps in their ears and noses
that shut tight to keep the water out.

That would be pretty nice to keep water out of your nose, wouldn't it?

(from: wikipedia - north american river otter)

## Tuesday, January 1, 2013

### Sacrum

We just learned about the Distal Phalanges.

We've learned before about most of the bones in your spine,
the cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, and lumbar vertebrae.

There are two more parts on your spine at the very bottom.
The first one is called the sacrum, a somewhat large triangle shaped bone right in the middle of your hips.

sacrum by itself:

(from: wikipedia - sacrum)

sacrum shown where it is in between the hip bones:

We'll learn about the other part next Tuesday!