Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Pneumatic Cylinder


We just learned about the Pneumatics.

One use for pneumatics is a Pneumatic Cylinder.

This is a type of tube that is filled with pressured air.
More air can be pushed into it to make something move like a pole because the air is pushing it out.

We've learned before about using water or liquids in machines called hydraulics.
Some people choose to use pneumatics instead of hydraulics because if there is a leak then it is just air and no water will drip on anyone.

One good example of this is the Tiki Room at Disney Land.
The people chose pneumatics to do the movement of the birds and plants, and if there is a leak it won't make a mess for when the people are watching the show.


(from: wikipedia - pneumatic cylinder)


(from: wikipedia - walt disney's enchanted tiki room)


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Thursday, March 26, 2020

Pneumatics


We just learned about the Pulse Coder.

Another type of machine movement is Pneumatics, pronounced like new-mat-ix.

The word pneuma in Greek means "breath", and pneumatics means using air that is under pressure.
Some machines use pneumatics in big metal tanks with pressurized air, and some use pneumatics in tubes to push things along.

Pneumatics would even be if you had a balloon full of air, and you let the air out to have the balloon fly around the room.
That is using the air trapped in the balloon to push the balloon along.


(from: wikipedia - pneumatics)


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Thursday, March 19, 2020

Pulse Coder


We just learned about the Hydraulic Brake.

Another part of a machine is a Pulse Coder.

We learned before about a rotary encoder, a type of map that a spinning machine can use to tell how far it spins left or right.

A pulse coder is a type of encoder that can also tell a spinning machine how fast it is spinning.


(from: wikipedia - rotary encoder)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Falcon Heavy

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Hydraulic Brake


We just learned about the Hydraulic Cylinder.

Another type of a machine is a Hydraulic Brake.

In a machine like a car, the brakes that stop the car work by closing tightly and squeezing the wheel to try and slow it down.
The pieces that close are called pistons, and in a hydraulic brake system they are pushed closed by liquids.

There is a tube that is hooked up to the brake, and when a liquid called brake fluid is pushed in, it pushes on the pistons which push on the wheel and close it.
The brake fluid is pushed into the tube from another place, where a metal pole is pushed into the the liquid to push it down into the tube.

So in a hydraulic brake system in a car, when you push your foot down on the brake, it pushes the liquid into the tube which pushes the brakes closed and stops the car.


(from: wikipedia - hydraulic brake)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Falcon

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Hydraulic Cylinder


We just learned about Hydraulics, using water to move things.

Another part of hydraulics is a Hydraulic Cylinder.

This is a tube that is filled with liquid like oil, and a special motor pushes more oil into the cylinder which pushes something like a big metal rod out of the tube.


(from: wikipedia - hydraulic cylinder)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Space Shuttle

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Hydraulics


We just learned about the Negative Feedback.

Another part of machine science is Hydraulics.

This means using the power of water to move machines.
The science of hydraulics goes back thousands of years, and can be as simple as just a water wheel that is using the power of a river to turn the wheel.

Any system that uses water to move something is using hydraulics.


(from: wikipedia - hydraulics)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Ariane

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Negative Feedback


We just learned about the Encoder.

Another part of a servo is Negative Feedback.

When a servo machine is working, and it needs to tell the motor to STOP, it needs some sort of a sensor that tells it when to stop.

A negative feedback part of a machine is something that senses when something gets to a point where it needs to stop, and the movement of the machine stops the machine itself.

That might sound sort of confusing, but if you think about a real world example it makes sense.

In a toilet there is usually a type of ball that is floating in the water in the tank.
When there is no water, the ball is hanging down, which lets the water flow in to fill up the tank.
As the water starts to rise, it gets to the ball and starts to make it float.
When it gets high enough, the ball is floating and it is connected to a valve that closes to stop water coming in.

So the ball floating is the negative feedback saying CLOSE THE VALVE AND STOP LETTING WATER IN, and the more the ball floats up the more the valve closes until it is totally closed and the water stops coming in.


(from: wikipedia - negative feedback)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: SM-65 Atlas

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Encoder


We just learned about the Servo, that has sensors to tell it when to start or stop.

One part of a servo is the Encoder.

An encoder is like a map that the servo uses, so when the machine moves it knows where it is and when to stop.
Encoders have markings on them that a sensor can see to tell the machine that it is moving.

A rotary encoder is a type of encoder for a machine that spins.
It has lines on it to help the machine figure out how far it spins around.
If a machine spins to the right, the sensor might see 10 black lines go by.
The machine would then know that if it wanted to go back to where it started, it could spin the other way until it counted 10 black lines go by.


(from: wikipedia - rotary encoder)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: R-7 Rockets

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Servo


We just learned about the Valve Types.

Another part of machines is a Servo, also called a servomechanism.

This is something that uses special sensors to make a machine move or stop moving if it senses something bad.

When you go to a store and the automatic door is closing but senses you walking through it and stops, that is using a servo.
The servo has a motor that is closing the door, and then the sensor tells it that there is someone there, and it tells the motor to stop.

When it is clear, the servo tells it to close the door.

So a servo is really like a smart machine controller that automatically turns on or off when it needs to.


(from: wikipedia - servomechanism)


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Thursday, January 30, 2020

Valve Types


We just learned about the Poppet Valve, and we learned about the Ball Valve before that.

There are lots of different Valve Types out there that are made for different reasons.

A Globe Valve has a body that is shaped sort of like a globe, and has a disc that goes up and down to plug the hole and stop the flow of liquid or gas.

(from: wikipedia - globe valve)

A Butterfly Valve has a circle shaped disc in the middle that spins to open or close.


(from: wikipedia - butterfly valve)

A Gate Valve has a gate that goes up and down to open or close the hole.


(from: wikipedia - gate valve)

A Check Valve is a type of valve that stays closed unless the liquid or gas pushes hard enough to open it, and then it will close again using something like a spring.


(from: wikipedia - check valve)

A Control Valve is a valve that is controlled by a computer to tell it to open a little or a lot, so that it can control the amount of liquid or gas that is coming through.


(from: wikipedia - control valve)

Valves can have have a lot more than just two holes or ports also.
Many valves have three or four ports, and some have even more!


(from: wikipedia - four way valve)

There are a lot more types of valves out there. Pretty much any way you can think of to open or close a pipe, someone has made a valve for it.

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: V-2 Rocket

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Poppet Valve


We just learned about the Ball Valve.

Another type of valve is the Poppet Valve.

This is a valve that is usually used to open and close for gas to come through.

In a car's engine there are valves used to help the fuel come in, and after it makes a big explosion there are valves to let the burnt up air out.



(from: wikipedia - poppet valve)


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Thursday, January 16, 2020

Ball Valve


We just learned about the Valve Trim.

There are a lot of different kinds of valves.
One type of valve that is used a lot is the Ball Valve.

It's called a ball valve because inside the valve there is a ball.
The ball has a hole in the middle of it, and the valve handle turns the ball.
When the ball is turned one way, the water or gas can go through the hole in the ball.
When the ball is turned the other way, the ball blocks the water or gas, and keeps the valve closed.



(from: wikipedia - ball valve)


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Thursday, January 9, 2020

Valve Trim


We just learned about the Valve Spring.

Another part of the valve is the Valve Trim.

The valve stem, seat, disc and any parts that are inside the valve are all together called the Valve Trim.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: The Rocket into Planetary Space - Hermann Oberth

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Valve Spring


We just learned about the Gasket that helps keep a valve from leaking.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Spring.

Some valves use a spring to keep a valve closed, but if there is a lot of pressure they will squeeze and let the disc open and let some pressure out.
Once enough pressure is let out, the spring will push the disc closed again.


(from: wikipedia - relief valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Le Prieur Rocket

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Gasket


We just learned about the Valve Stem that sticks up from the valve.

Another part of a valve is the Gasket.

This is a small circle that goes inside any place where two pieces of a valve have to be connected.
So at the top where the bonnet goes is sometimes a gasket, and then where the ports connect to other pipes is sometimes a gasket.

It's a way to help make sure that the liquid or gas doesn't leak out through where the two parts are connected.

Sometimes they're made out of rubber, but other times they're made out of paper or even metal.


(from: wikipedia - gasket)


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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Valve Stem


We just learned about the Valve Seat.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Stem.

This is the part that sticks up out of the valve, and is used to help open and close the valve disc which lets gas or water go or stop.

There is a valve stem on a bicycle tire that sticks out.
If you hook a pump up to the valve stem, it will push in a pin which will allow air to go in or come out.


(from: wikipedia - valve stem)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Nell Rocket - Robert Goddard

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Valve Seat


We just learned about the Valve Disc.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Seat.

We know that the holes where the water or gas come in are the ports, and that the part of the valve that closes those holes is the disc.
The part of the valve that touches the disc and makes it a tight seal so nothing can get through is called the seat.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: L'Astronautique - Robert Esnault-Pelterie

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Valve Disc


We just learned about the Valve Handle.

Another part of the valve is the Valve Disc.

Inside the valve body is the part that moves to open or close to control the water or gas coming through.

There are a lot of different types of discs, that move in different ways to open up and close.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, November 28, 2019

Valve Handle


We just learned about the Valve Port.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Handle.

To open or close a valve, you can turn the handle one way or another.
This is just like the faucet that you use on a sink or a water valve outside the house.

There are a lot of types of valve handles.
The one on the faucet outside the house is usually a wheel handle that spins around.
The handle on the sink faucet is usually some kind of lever handle.
The handle underneath the sink that connects to the water line is usually a T shaped handle.

Some valves don't have handles because they are automatically opened by some other type of machine.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, November 21, 2019

Valve Port


We just learned about the valve Bonnet.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Port.

This is the part of the valve that lets water or gas in or out.
They can have as little as just two ports, but many valves have more.
Some valves even have up to 20 ports!

Simple two port valves are just open or closed.
Other valves with a lot of ports might have a few open and others closed depending on how it is set up.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: HMS Erebus Rockets