Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Valve Disc


We just learned about the Valve Handle.

Another part of the valve is the Valve Disc.

Inside the valve body is the part that moves to open or close to control the water or gas coming through.

There are a lot of different types of discs, that move in different ways to open up and close.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, November 28, 2019

Valve Handle


We just learned about the Valve Port.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Handle.

To open or close a valve, you can turn the handle one way or another.
This is just like the faucet that you use on a sink or a water valve outside the house.

There are a lot of types of valve handles.
The one on the faucet outside the house is usually a wheel handle that spins around.
The handle on the sink faucet is usually some kind of lever handle.
The handle underneath the sink that connects to the water line is usually a T shaped handle.

Some valves don't have handles because they are automatically opened by some other type of machine.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, November 21, 2019

Valve Port


We just learned about the valve Bonnet.

Another part of a valve is the Valve Port.

This is the part of the valve that lets water or gas in or out.
They can have as little as just two ports, but many valves have more.
Some valves even have up to 20 ports!

Simple two port valves are just open or closed.
Other valves with a lot of ports might have a few open and others closed depending on how it is set up.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, November 14, 2019

Bonnet


We just learned about the Valve Body.

Another part of a valve is the Bonnet.

This is on top of the valve body, covering up the inside of it.
The bonnet can be taken off the top to open up the valve and fix it.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Congreve Rockets

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Valve Body


We just learned about the Valve.

There are a lot of parts to a valve that make it work.
Most of the parts of the valve inside of it that you can't see are all together called the Valve Body.

Inside the valve body are the parts of the valve that open and close to let gas or liquid through.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mysorean Rockets

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Valve


We just learned about the Cam.

Another part of moving things like machines is a Valve.

This is something that opens and closes to let air or water in or out.
We use valves every day, like when we turn on the water to wash hands.

Turning the water on opens the valve, and you can usually open it a little or a lot.
Then turning the water off closes the valve.


(from: wikipedia - valve)


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Thursday, October 24, 2019

Cam


We just learned about the linear actuator.

Another type of actuator or moving machine is a Cam.

A cam is a disc usually on a rotor that is spinning around.
The disc is mostly shaped like a circle, but it as a part that sticks out like a bump.
The circle disc is called the camp plate, disc cam or radial cam.

When the rotor spins around, that bump part of the cam can push down on something like a shaft or a pole.
Machines can use this to push those shafts down over and over again.
So every time the rotor spins around, it pushes the shaft down and then back up.


(from: wikipedia - cam)


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Thursday, October 17, 2019

Linear Actuator


We just learned about the Rack and Pinion gears.

Another type of thing used in machines is a Linear Actuator.

The word actuator really just means "mover" and there are lots of types of actuators out there.
Linear means moving in a straight line.

So a linear actuator is a type of machine that moves something in a straight line.
We learned before about rotors that spin around in circles in electric motors.
So this is different because it might be moving a rod up or down, back or forward but in a straight line.

Sometimes this is done by having a bolt or screw that has lines on it, and then a nut spinning around on the screw that makes the screw go up and down.
This is a roller screw linear actuator.


(from: wikipedia - linear actuator)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Bellifortis Rockets

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Rack and Pinion


We just learned about the Air Gap in a motor.

Another type of thing used in machines is the Rack and Pinion.

A pinion is a gear, which we learned is a circle with teeth on the end.
The rack is a long flat line that has teeth on it, that match up with the gear.

When the gear spins around, it goes along the rack one way or the other.
These can be used as pinion wheels for something like a train that goes along a rack track, or sometimes as a pinion wheel that climbs up and down a pole that has a rack on it.


(from: wikipedia - rack and pinion)


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Thursday, October 3, 2019

Air Gap


We just learned about the Electromagnet.

Another part of the electric motor is the Air Gap.

We learned that the rotor is the part that spins around in the middle, and the stator is the part that is wrapped around it.

The very small space between the rotor and the stator is the air gap.

The smaller the air gap, the better the electric motor will work, but it also needs to be enough space that the rotor won't hit the stator as it is spinning around.


(from: wikipedia - electric motor)


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Thursday, September 26, 2019

Electromagnet


We just learned about the Windings.

Another part of an electric motor is the Electromagnet.

An electromagnet is a bunch of wire wrapped around a pole, and the wire has electricity going through it.
The electricity and the winding of the wire creates an invisible field that can be used to charge or move metals.

In an electric motor, the electromagnet is what helps spin the rotor around inside the stator using electromagnetism.


(from: wikipedia - electromagnet)


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Thursday, September 19, 2019

Windings


We just learned about the Stator in an electric motor.

Another part of an electric motor is the Windings.

These are the metal wires that are wrapped around the stator or the rotor.
They are wrapped in loops around and around, and when electricity goes through these wires it creates something called an electric or magnetic field that can spin the rotor around.

This works kind of like magnets that can move metal without even touching them.


(from: wikipedia - electric motor)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Air Resistance

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Stator


We just learned about the Rotor shaft that spins inside an electric motor.

Another part of an electric motor is the Stator.

This is the circle hole that the rotor goes into when it is spinning.

Usually the stator has something like an electromagnet in it that is used to make the rotor spin around.
The stator doesn't move, and the rotor spins around inside it.


(from: wikipedia - stator)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Ballistics

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Rotor


We just learned about the Electric Motor.

In the motor, the spinning pole or shaft in the middle is called the Rotor.

The electric motor spins the rotor around, and then the rotor is connected to other gears or pulleys to use the spinning to move other things.



(from: wikipedia - rotor (electric))


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Thursday, August 29, 2019

Electric Motor


We just learned about the Bearing.

One type of motor used for a lot of things is an Elecric Motor.

This motor usually has some electric coils wrapped around a metal pole, spinning around inside a tube.

Some electric motors use the tube to force the pole to spin, and others take the energy from the spinning pole and use it to charge up electricity from the tube around it.


(from: wikipedia - electric motor)


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Thursday, August 22, 2019

Bearing


We just learned about the Axle.

Another part of machine work is a Bearing.

This is something that lets one part of a wheel spin around without moving another.
Like on a fidget spinner, you can hold the middle of it and the outside will spin around.
Or like a front bicycle wheel, the wheel will spin around the hole in the middle where the front handlebar is attached.

Usually this is done using ball bearings, which are tiny little balls covered in slimy grease.
On the outside is one metal cylinder, then a bunch of ball bearings, and then a smaller inside cylinder.

The outside cylinder can spin while the inside one is stopped, or the other way around.



(from: wikipedia - bearing (mechanical))


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Thursday, August 15, 2019

Axle


We just learned about the big long spinning pole called the Shaft.

Another part of machines is an Axle.

An axle is a long spinning pole like a shaft, but it is connected to wheels on either side.
It is also usually used to help hold up something like a car or a train.

Sometimes the axle doesn't spin but the wheels do, kind of like on a bike.
When a bicycle's wheel spins, the metal post inside the wheel does not spin.
This is usually called a spindle instead of an axle.

Cars and trucks are sometimes talked about by how many axles they have.
This really means how many sets of wheels across from each other are there.
So a normal car would be 2 axles, but a big semi truck might have 5 or more axles on it to help spread out the weight carried by each axle.

Sometimes they have more than one set of wheels on an axle to help hold the weight, but that still only counts as one axle.


(from: wikipedia - axle)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Thursday, August 8, 2019

Shaft


We just learned about the Pulley.

Another part of a machine is a Shaft.

A shaft is a long pipe, rod or pole that is on the inside of some kind of bigger spinning wheel.
This can be part of a gear, sprocket or pulley.

When the gear spins around, it turns the pipe.

In some machines, the pipe is used to move something else farther away from the gear.
Like in a windmill, the big wheel outside that is moving has a long shaft attached to it.
The shaft goes into the building where it is hooked up to other gears to turn them and do something useful like grid up corn into flour.

When the windmill turns, the shaft spins, and the gears inside spin and do the work.

A car also has a shaft. When the car burns up gas it makes a shaft spin which then connects to other shafts that turn the wheels.



(from: wikipedia - shaft (mechanical engineering))


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Thursday, August 1, 2019

Pulley


We just learned about the Sprocket that has teeth like a gear, but is made for a chain.

Another type of wheel that is used in machines is a Pulley.

Just like a gear or sprocket it is a wheel that spins for a machine, but the outside of a pulley does not have any teeth.
It has a cable, rope or belt around it that spins around the wheel.

Sometimes a pulley wheel is flat, and sometimes it has a groove for the rope to try and hold the rope or cable in the right place.


(from: wikipedia - pulley)


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Thursday, July 25, 2019

Sprocket


We just learned about the Gear.

Another piece of a machine is a Sprocket.

This is a wheel with teeth that looks a lot like a gear, but it is made to hook into a chain or a track.
If you look on a bicycle you will see a chain hooked to a wheel with teeth.
When you move the pedals it turns the wheel, which moves the chain, which turns the bike wheels and makes it go.
The wheel with teeth hooked to your pedals is a sprocket.

Sprockets are also used in things like tanks, or in other big machines.



(from: wikipedia - sprocket)


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