Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Thursday, September 16, 2021

Computers


We just learned about the Tire Code.

We've learned a whole lot about car engines work!

Let's learn a little about Computers.

When we think of computers, some people think of the laptop they use at home, or the bigger computer they use at work.
Other people might think of the really big computers sitting alone in rooms at buildings doing gigantic amounts of work for hundreds, thousands or even millions of people.

There are other things that are computers that people don't really call computers, like tablets or iPads, cell phones, or video game systems.
All of these things have computers inside them that make them work.
These days even things like cars, airplanes, TVs, and even things like Washers and Dryers have tiny computers in them!

The first computers made were made over 50 years ago and filled up entire rooms with all of their parts.
Things have gotten so small now that a computer the size of your fingernail could do more than that whole room of computers did.


(from: wikipedia - computer)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Smokebox

Thursday, September 9, 2021

Tire Code


We just learned about the Tire Valve Stem.

Another part of a tire is the Tire Code.

If you look on the side of a car tire, you will see some letters and numbers printed on it.
These are there to help tell you what kind of tire you have, and also helpful things like how much air you should put into it.

Most tires use something called the "ISO Metric tire code" which has rules for what letters and numbers go in what order.

This code has these rules:

Use: One letter to tell how the tire will be used, like "P" for Passenger car, or T for a Temporary spare tire.
Width: Numbers for the width of the tire in millimiters.
/ in between the numbers
Height: Numbers for how tall the rubber part of the tire is. This is also called aspect ratio or profile.
Type of tire: One letter tells the type of tire, like R for a radial tire.
Rim width: The diameter of the metal rim that the tire is wrapped around.
Load: A code that tells how much weight the tire can take.
Speed ratimg: A code that tells how fast a tire can go.

So if a tire code says: P215/65R15 95H
That means it is a Passenger car, 215 milimeters wide, 65 millimeters profile height, Radial tire, 15 inch rims.
If you look up the 95H code, that means it can handle 1,520 pounds and go 130 miles per hour.


(from: wikipedia - tire code)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Smokebox

Thursday, August 26, 2021

Tire Tread


We just learned a little about Car Tire.

One part of the tire is the Tire Tread.

This is the rubber on the outside of the tire that is in different shapes and patterns.
When there are lines in the tires, those are supposed to help the tire push water out of the way so the car doesn't slide around on the road.
Some tires made for the snow have bigger gaps in the tire treads so the snow can pack in there, and sometimes they even have hard bumps on the outside to help keep the car from slipping.
Tires that are used for racing are called racing slicks, and they have no marks on the tread at all.

After driving for a while, the rubber tread on the outside of the tire will wear out, and the tread will get smooth.
When this happens the tires need to be replaced.



(from: wikipedia - tire tread)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sand Dome

Thursday, August 19, 2021

Car Tire


We just learned about the Brake Pad.

Another part of a car is the Tire.

We know these are the things on the car that touch the road and spin around and make the car go.
Even though tires seem really simple, there is a lot of work that goes into making a tire that doesn't pop or slip all over, and that makes a car ride feel smooth.

When people first started making carts to sit in and be pulled by horses, they were mostly just made of wood, metal and leather so they were a very bumpy ride.
Now cars use rubber tires, that are smooth or bumpy on the outside depending on if you are driving in snow or on a race track.
There are even giant rubber tires that are made with no air in them so they can't pop.


(from: wikipedia - tire)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Safety Valve

Thursday, August 12, 2021

Brake Pad


We just learned about the Brake Caliper.

Another part of a car is the Brake Pad.

Remmeber we learned that the caliper is wrapped around the spinning rotor and clamps down to stop it from spinning and slow the car down.
The brake pad is inside the caliper, and pushes against the rotor.
The pads scrape against the rotor, and eventually they will wear down and have to be replaced.
Cars have brake pads for their front wheels, and the back wheel pads are called brake shoes.



(from: wikipedia - brake pad)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Johnson Bar

Thursday, August 5, 2021

Brake Caliper


We just learned about the Rotor.

Another part of a car is the Brake Caliper.

We know the rotor is a disc shaped part inside the wheel that is spinning around.
The caliper goes on the outside of the rotor, and when you hit the brakes it pushes onto the rotor to stop it from spinning around.


(from: wikipedia - disc brake)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Valve Gear

Thursday, July 29, 2021

Rotor


We just learned about the Lug Nut.

Another part of a car is the Rotor, also called the disc.

When the car needs to stop, the rotor is a disc shaped part of the wheel that is spinning around, and the car has brakes that clamp down hard onto the rotors to make it stop spinning and the car slows down and stops.


(from: wikipedia - disc brake)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Train Whistle

Thursday, July 22, 2021

Lug Nut


We just learned about the Rims.

Another part of a car is the Lug Nut or wheel nut.

The lug nuts are what hold the rims onto the car.
If you need to replace a tire or work on the car brakes or the axle, you start by lifting up your car with something called a jack, and then removing the lug nuts using a tool called a lug nut.



(from: wikipedia - lug nut)


(from: wikipedia - lug nut)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cab - Engineer and Fireman

Thursday, July 15, 2021

Rims


We just learned about the Cooling Fan.

Another part of a car is the Rims.

The wheels that the car rides on have big metal insides that are connected to the axle that spins around and moves the wheels.

These big metal cylinders are called rims, and they are made out of strong metals that can hold the weight of the car.
The tires are on the outside of the rims, for the rubber part that touches the road.



(from: wikipedia - alloy wheel)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tender

Thursday, July 8, 2021

Cooling Fan


We just learned about the car's Radiator.

Another part of a car is the Cooling Fan.

We know the radiator gets hot and has to get cooled down so it can put cold liquid back into the engine.
Most engines have a fan that blows air onto the radiator to help cool it.


(from: wikipedia - fan (machine))


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Fire Tube Boiler

Thursday, July 1, 2021

Radiator


We just learned about the Car Battery.

Another part of a car is the Radiator.

We learned before about the coolant passages in an engine that bring cooled liquid through holes in the hot engine to cool it down.

After the liquid called coolant comes out of the engine it has been heated up by the engine.
The hot liquid then goes to the radiator to get cooled off.
The radiator is a bunch of tubes with a bunch of metal fins on it.
The metal fins help pull the heat away from the tubes and cool down the liquid.
There is also a fan that is blowing on the radiator to try and cool it down.

The liquid that is in the radiator is called coolant or antifreeze, which is a mix of water and some other chemicals that won't turn to ice in the winter.




(from: wikipedia - radiator)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Locomotion No. 1

Thursday, June 24, 2021

Car Battery


We just learned about the Manual Transmission.

Another part of a car is the Car Battery.

This is a rechargable battery in the car that helps start the car and run other electrical things in the car like lights and radios.

When the car is running, the alternator charges up the battery.

Sometimes a car battery can run out of power.
This can happen if the alternator isn't working, or if someone leaves a light on in the car and the battery all gets used up.

If this happens, the battery has two metal posts on it called terminals.
You can hook those terminals up to another car's battery, and use that electricity to recharge your battery.


(from: wikipedia - automotive battery)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Salamanca

Thursday, June 17, 2021

Manual Transmission


We just learned about the Automatic Transmission.

Another part of a car is a Manual Transmission.

Just like an automatic transmission, this is the part of the car that uses big or small gears to help the car go fast or slow.

In an automatic transmission, the car changes between big and small gears automatically as the car speeds up or slows down.
For a manual transmission, the driver has to tell the car when to change the gears.

To the left of the brake pedal in a car is something called the clutch pedal.
To the right of the driver's seat in the middle of the car is a stick pointing up called the gear shift.

When the driver wants to change from a slow gear to a fast gear, they have to push in the clutch, and then move the gear shift around to the right spot, then release the clutch and the new gear will be used.
The gear shift can be moved up, down, left or right to go into different slots that are for different gears like 1, 2, 3, 4 or reverse.



(from: wikipedia - manual transmission)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Pen-y-Darren Locomotive

Thursday, June 10, 2021

Automatic Transmission


We just learned about the Starter.

Another part of a car is an Automatic Transmission.

In a car, we learned that when the pistons move up and down they spin the crankshaft, and that this spinning movement is what is used to make the car go.

Cars use gears to control whether that spinning motion makes the car go fast or slow.
We've learned about types of gears before, with small ones that spin very fast and big ones that spin slower.

The transmission system is the part of the car that controls which of the small or big gears to connect to the spinning crankshaft to make the car go fast or slow.


(from: wikipedia - automatic transmission)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cugnot's - Fardier à vapeur

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Starter


We just learned about the Alternator.

Another part of a car is the Starter.

We know that the engine takes in gas for fuel and the explosion of the gas moves the pistons go up and down.
The power of the exploding gas is enough to drive the car and also keep the pistons moving until they run out of fuel.

When a car is turned off, the pistons can't just move by themselves the first time, they need some way to start the engine moving for the first time.
It's kind of like a campfire. As long as you keep putting wood on the fire it will keep going, but first you have to start the fire.

Car engines use something called a Starter to get things going the first time.
The starter takes electric power from the energy saved up in the car's battery.
It uses that electricity to power an electric motor, which spins a gear around and uses that power to get the engine moving the first time.

That starter gets turned on when someone either pushes the button or turns the car keys, and the engine starts up.



(from: wikipedia - starter (engine))


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: North River Steamboat

Thursday, May 27, 2021

Alternator


We just learned about the Fuel Injector.

Another part of a car is the Alternator.

We've learned about how a car burns gasoline for fuel to make it move.
There are some parts of the car that need electricity, not just moving parts.

When the car engine runs, it is hooked up to some belts that are hooked up to the alternator.
The car makes the belts spin around, and the alternator uses that spinning motion and charges up electric power.
It then uses that electric power to charge up the car battery and to run all of the electrical things in a car like headlights, windshield wipers and radios.


(from: wikipedia - alternator (automotive))


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sun and Planet Gear

Thursday, May 20, 2021

Fuel Injector


We just learned about the Carburetor that helps bring the right mix of gas and air to the engine.

Another part of a car is a Fuel Injector.

A fuel injection does the same job as a carburetor, but it works a little differently.
The carburetor mixes up the gas and air and then sends the mixture over to the engine.

A fuel injection system instead sends the air and gas right into the engine, and it has something like a small computer that controls how much fuel and air goes in at just the right time and amount to make the engine work.


(from: wikipedia - fuel injection)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rotative Beam Engine

Thursday, May 13, 2021

Carburetor


We just learned about the Oil Filter.

Another part of a car is the Carburetor.

In order for the car's engine to burn up the gas it uses for fuel, it needs to have the right mixture of air and gas.
With a campfire you need wood as fuel mixed with air to make it burn. The same goes for car engines, but you use gas mixed with air, and it has to be the right amount of each for the car to burn the fuel and make the engine run.

The carburetor helps the engine control how much fuel and air are brought to the engine to get the right mix so the engine will run.


(from: wikipedia - carburetor)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Newcomen Engine

Thursday, May 6, 2021

Oil Filter


We just learned about the Oil Pump.

Another part of a car is the Oil Filter.

We've learned that oil goes through the motor to keep things running smoothly, and that the oil pump is the thing that pushes the oil through the motor.

The oil gets dirty after going through the engine, and so it has to get cleaned up.
The oil filter is hooked up to the engine, and the oil gets pumped into that, cleaned up and then sent back out to the engine.

Because these oil filters get very dirty, they have to be changed out for new ones when they are used up.


(from: wikipedia - oil filter)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Steam Pump

Thursday, April 29, 2021

Oil Pump


We just learned about the Motor Oil.

Another part of a car is the Oil Pump.

The oil that helps keep everything in the engine moving fast and slippery gets pushed through the car using an oil pump.

There are a few different types of oil pumps, but one of the most common is the gear pump.
For this type of pump, the gears spin around and help push the oil through the engine.
The gears are spun around using the power of the spinning crankshaft as it goes around.


(from: wikipedia - gear pump)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Steam Cylinder