Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Thursday, August 25, 2022

Jet Fuel


We just learned about the Diesel Fuel.

Another thing that is made from oil is Jet Fuel, also called aviation turbine fuel, ATF, or avtur.

Jet fuel is a lot like diesel fuel, but because it has to be used for jet planes flighing high up in the air it has to be a little different.
When the jet goes up very high, it gets very cold so there can't be any water in the fuel or it could freeze.
It also has a very high flash point, which is the temperature that the air fumes start on fire.


(from: wikipedia - jet fuel)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tire Tread

Thursday, August 18, 2022

Diesel Fuel


We just learned about Gasoline.

Another thing made from oil is Diesel Fuel.

Just like gasoline, diesel fuel can be used in cars and motors to make things go.
The big difference between gasoline and diesel is that diesel is thicker, and more like crude oil.

Gasoline is more easy to start on fire, so gasoline engines use a spark to light up the fuel,
but diesel engines use pressure to cause heat and make the diesel start on fire and run the engine.


(from: wikipedia - diesel fuel)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Car Tire

Thursday, August 11, 2022

Gasoline


We just learned about the Fluid Catalytic Cracking.

Turning oil from the ground into something we an use takes a lot of work and uses a lot of heating, cooling and mixing with chemicals.
When it is all done, there are a lot of things that oil is used for.

One of the most well known things we make from oil is Gasoline.

This is the fuel used for cars, airplanes, lawnmowers or any kind of a motor that burns gas.

Burning gasoline for fuel causes a lot of pollution, so there are a lot of people making electric cars to help make that better!


(from: wikipedia - gasoline)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Brake Pad

Thursday, August 4, 2022

Fluid Catalytic Cracking


We just learned about the Catalytic Reforming.

Another part of refining oil is called Fluid Catalytic Cracking.

This is a way that some of the heavy crude oils get turned into gasoline or other petroleum things by boiling and cooling the oil, mixing it with other chemicals, and separating out the parts it wants to keep.


(from: wikipedia - fluid catalytic cracking)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Brake Caliper

Thursday, July 28, 2022

Catalytic Reforming


We just learned about the Naphtha.

Another part of refining oil is Catalytic Reforming.

This is something using chemistry and a very expensive metal called platinum to turn the naphtha into something called reformates.


(from: wikipedia - catalytic reforming)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rotor

Thursday, July 21, 2022

Naphtha


We just learned about the Distillation.

Another part of refining oil is Naphtha.

After some of the things like distillation and desulfurization, the oil is turned into something called naphtha.
This is a flammable liquid that is sometimes sold as fuel like white gas.

In history, the Greek word νάφθα (naphtha) is used in a story of a fiery furnace.
In a book from around 200 BC, there is a story about a thick water used by Nehemiah called Nephthar.

Some mixtures of naphtha have been used to make soap, and also the chemical napalm.


(from: wikipedia - naphtha)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Lug Nut

Thursday, July 14, 2022

Distillation


We just learned about the Desalter.

Another part of the way that oil is cleaned up or refined is called Distillation.

When a liquid is boiled, it turns into a gas called steam.
When the steam cools, it turns back into a liquid, which is called condensation.
The liquid boiling and condensing over and over and being collected in different places is called distillation.


(from: wikipedia - continuous distillation)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rims

Thursday, July 7, 2022

Desalter


We just learned about the Oil Refinery.

One part of refining oil is called a Desalter.

When crude oil comes out of the ground it has a bunch of chemicals in it that need to be removed to make it more useful.
Usually oil ends up getting mixed up with water which can have a lot of other things mixed in it like calcium, sodium and magnesium chlorides.
These are all called salts, and aren't the same as the salt you eat but they have to be removed from the oil.

The crude oil gets heated up really hot and then mixed with some fresh water.
It gets pumped into another tank that uses electricity to get the water and salts to go to the bottom of the tank and get separated from the oil.
The desalted oil on top then gets pumped out.


(from: wikipedia - desalter)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cooling Fan

Thursday, June 30, 2022

Oil Refinery


We just learned about the Oil Platform.

Another part of how we use oil is an Oil Refinery.

When the oil is pumped out of the oil well in the ground, it needs to be cleaned up and made into something that can be used in engines or to make other things that need oil.
An oil refinery is the place the oil is brought to, and cleaned up in what is called refining.


(from: wikipedia - oil refinery)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Radiator

Thursday, June 23, 2022

Oil Platform


We just learned about the Drilling Rig.

Another way to drill for oil is an Oil Platform or Offshore Platform.

This is a big building out in the water that has drills going down into the water to the ocean floor.
The drill digs down below the ocean floor to drill for oil and then bring it back up to the oil platform.

Some oil platforms have big metal posts holding them still in the water, and some are just floating on top of the water.




(from: wikipedia - oil platform)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Car Battery

Thursday, June 16, 2022

Drilling Rig


We just learned about the Oil Derrick.

Another part of how we get oil is a Drilling Rig.

We learned about oil wells and oil derricks.
A drilling rig is just a bigger bunch of machines and tools used to get oil that are all grouped together in one place called a "rig".


(from: wikipedia - drilling rig)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Manual Transmission

Thursday, June 9, 2022

Oil Derrick


We just learned about the Pumpjack.

Another part of how we get oil is the Oil Derrick.

A derrick is a really tall tower that helps out with all of the drilling.
It can be used to hold the pulleys, levers, drills or any other things that are used to drill into the ground and get the oil out.


(from: wikipedia - derrick)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Automatic Transmission

Thursday, June 2, 2022

Pumpjack


We just learned about the Oil Well.

One part of drilling oil out of the ground is a thing called a Pumpjack.

This is a machine that has a long metal beam hooked up to a machine that pushes and pulls the jack up and down almost like a see-saw.
The pumping motion helps pull the oil out of the ground so it can be collected and taken somewhere to clean up and be used for other things.


(from: wikipedia - pumpjack)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Starter

Thursday, May 26, 2022

Oil Well


We just learned about the Oil Sands.

Another part of making oil is a Oil Well.

When oil is found in the ground and someone wants to get it out, they have to make something called an oil well.
Just like a well that is dug down deep for water, the same thing goes for oil.

The oil well is dug deep down using drills, and then the oil is pumped out of the hole where it was found.


(from: wikipedia - oil well)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Alternator

Thursday, May 19, 2022

Oil Sands


We just learned about the Crude Oil.

One type of oil found in the ground is Oil Sands, also called tar sands, crude bitumen or bituminous sands.

In places like Canada, the oil is not a runny liquid like in other places, it is more like a chunk of sticky clay that is mixed up with sand.
That chunky type of clay without the sand is called bitumen or asphalt.
When you see a road or parking made using hard black chunky stuff that is rolled over with a steamroller, that is ashphalt.

If you want to use that sandy bitumen oil for something like a car engine, it takes a lot of work and uses a lot of other things like natural gases, acids, salts, other chemicals, water or heat to try and change it.
Because it is harder to get liquid oil from it, these oil sands are very expensive to refine, and it can cause a lot of pollution changing it into liquid oil.


(from: wikipedia - oil sands)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Fuel Injector

Thursday, May 12, 2022

Crude Oil


We just started to learn about Making Oil, which is also called petroleum.

One part of making oil is Crude Oil.

Before oil can be used in car engines or used to make things like plastics, it has to be cleaned up.
Almost like drinking water from a river might have a bunch of dirty things in it, oil can be the same way.

Crude oil means oil that is just found underground, and has to be cleaned up.
Sometimes it is floating above some water and below some gas, and doesn't need much cleaning.
Other times it is mixed up with sand and has to be filtered out. This is called bitumen or asphalt.
Other times it is thick almost like jelly and has to be made into more of a liquid. This is called heavy oil.


(from: wikipedia - petroleum)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Carburetor

Thursday, May 5, 2022

Making Oil


We just learned about the Chrome Browser, and a lot of other things about Computers!

Let's learn a little about something else.

One of the things that is used a lot in our world is Oil.
We use oil to create gasoline for cars, but also to make moving things slippery.
Oil is also used for things like making plastics, or even things like bubble gum and toothpaste.

But how do we get toothpaste from the sticky dark oil in the ground?
The way that we get oil out of the ground is called refining.

The oil refineries take the sticky dark oil, and turn it into many different types of oils that can then be sold for use in cars, plastics or other things.


(from: wikipedia - petroleum refining processes)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Oil Filter

Thursday, April 28, 2022

Chrome


We've learned about the first internet Web Browsers like WorldWideWeb, Mosaic, Netscape and Firefox, Internet Explorer and Edge.

Another type of browser is Chrome.

In 2008 Google thought that the internet browsers out there were not good enough, so they made their own, and called it Chrome.
It is still very popular today and a lot of people use it.


(from: wikipedia - google chrome)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Oil Pump

Thursday, April 21, 2022

Internet Explorer and Edge


We've learned about the first internet Web Browsers like WorldWideWeb, Mosaic, Netscape and Firefox.

Another few Internet Browsers are Internet Explorer and Edge.

In 1995 around the same time that Netscape was starting up, Microsoft made their own web browser called Internet Explorer, also sometimes just called "IE" for short.
IE went through lots of changes from 1995 through 2020, and then Microsoft decided to replace IE with a new browser called "Edge".


(from: wikipedia - internet explorer)

(from: wikipedia - microsoft edge)


Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Motor Oil

Thursday, April 14, 2022

Netscape and Firefox


We just learned about the Web Browser, and some of the first browsers called WorldWideWeb and Mosaic.

Another kind of browser was called Netscape, which then later turned into a browser called Firefox.

The browser Netscape was made by Marc Andreeson, one of the same people who worked on the Mosaic browser.
Netscape brought along a lot of big changes, like colors, animations, and lots of programming that people could do in browsers.

Later on the Netscape browser went away, but the people who worked on it came back later with a new browser called Firefox.





Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Long Block