Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Blue Jellyfish

We just learned about the Velella the sea sail hydrozoan.

Another type of jellyfish is the Blue Jellyfish, also called the bluefire jellyfish, Cyanea lamarckii or cyanea nozakii.

This is a small blue or yellow jellyfish grows to about 1 inch wide.
They mostly live around the areas of Europe by Sctoland and England.

They do have stinging tentacles that hurt a little if a person gets stung, but they will not kill anyone.

(from: wikipedia - blue jellyfish)

Blue jellyfish and Saithe from Norwegian coast - DanOlsen

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Stumpy Spined Cuttlefish

Tuesday, July 30, 2019


We've now learned a whole lot about the mouth, from teeth to tastebuds to Tonsils!

Let's start learning about the human Eyes.

The eyes give people the ability to take in light and turn it into shapes and figures that our brain can understand, and help us see.

Human eyes can see about 10 million colors, they can work together as two eyes to tell how close or far away something is, and can see things from specs of dirt on the ground to stars in the sky millions of miles away.

(from: wikipedia - human eye)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Hypodontia

Monday, July 29, 2019


We just learned about the Butter Churn Tower.

Another part of a castle is a Bastion, also sometimes called a bulwark.

This is a part of the curtain wall that goes around a castle, and it sticks out beyond the wall.

The bastion was made for cannons and other weapons to be further out from the curtain wall, to fight off the people coming to attack the castle.

(from: wikipedia - bastion)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Kronborg Castle

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Seven Ecumenical Councils

We just learned about Christianity in Armenia, with the country of Armenia being the first to become Christian.

Another part of early Christianity was the Seven Ecumenical Councils.

We learned before about the First Council of Nicea where people met to decide about the right ways to believe in God and Jesus, and what was true from history.

For a long time, people kept having arguments about what was true and what wasn't.
Any time there was a big argument, they would meet together at what they called an "Ecumenical Council" which just means a church meeting.

For over 400 years people met together to try and solve arguments, and these big meetings were called the Seven Ecumenical Councils:

- The First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, talked about what Jesus was really like.

- The First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD talked about the Holy Spirit.

- The Council of Ephesus in 431 AD talked about sin and about Jesus' mother Mary.

- The Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD talked about different leaders of the church, and about Jesus.

- Second Council of Constantinople in 553 AD talked about what Jesus was like.

- Third Council of Constantinople in 680 AD talked about what Jesus body and mind was like.

- Second Council of Nicaea in 787 AD talked about whether people should make paintings or pictures of saints and Jesus.

That's a whole lot of meetings with a lot of church leaders!

People worked hard for hundreds of years to try and make sure they were teaching people the truth about God, based on all of the writings in the Bible and other historians from thousands of years.

Even today all the leaders of the churches meet together to try and make sure they are spreading the word of God the way that they believe is right.

(from: wikipedia - first seven ecumenical councils)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Aristobulus - Bishop of Britain

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Church of Saint George, Lalibela

We just learned about the Obelisk of Axum in Ethiopia.

Another ancient African sculpture is the Church of Saint George, Lalibela.

This church was made around 1200 AD in the town of Lalibela, Ethiopia.
It was carved down into the ground out of the rock 100 feet deep.

The church was built when the King of Ethiopia had a vision of Saint George and God that told him to make the church.

(from: wikipedia - church of saint george, lalibela)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Gouji Zibai Pan

Friday, July 26, 2019

Norwegian - Counting to Thirty Nine

We counted to 29 in Norwegian, let's keep going!

30 tretti - sounds like t-deh-tay
31 trettien - sounds like t-deh-tee ay-ah-n
32 trettito - sounds like t-deh-tee too
33 tretti tre - sounds like t-deh-tee t-day-ah
34 trettifire - sounds like t-deh-tee fee-dah
35 trettifem - sounds like t-deh-tee fam
36 trettiseks - sounds like t-deh-tee seks
37 trettisyv - sounds like t-deh-tee see-v
38 trettiåtte - sounds like t-deh-tee oh-k-tuh
39 trettini - sounds like t-deh-tee nee

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: τριάντα (triánta), τριάντα ένα (triánta éna), τριάντα δύο (triánta dýo), τριάντα τρεις (triánta treis), τριάντα τέσσερις (triánta tésseris), τριάντα πέντε (triánta pénte), τριάντα έξι (triánta éxi), τριάντα επτά (triánta eptá), τριάντα οκτώ (triánta októ), τριάντα εννέα (triánta ennéa)

ASL: thirty, thirty one, thirty two, thirty three, thirty four, thirty five, thirty six, thirty seven, thirty eight, thirty nine

Italian: Trenta, trentuno, trentadue, trentatré, trentaquattro, trentacinque, trentasei, trentasette, trentotto, trentanove

German: einunddreißig, zweiunddreißig, dreiunddreißig, vierunddreißig, fünfunddreißig, sechsunddreißig, siebenunddreißig, achtunddreißig, neununddreißig

Spanish: treinta y uno, treinta y dos, treinta y tres, treinta y cuatro, treinta y cinco, treinta y seis, treinta y siete, treinta y ocho, treinta y nueve

French: trente et un, trente-deux, trente-trois, trente-quatre, trente-cinq, trente-six, trente-sept, trente-huit, trente-neuf

Thursday, July 25, 2019


We just learned about the Gear.

Another piece of a machine is a Sprocket.

This is a wheel with teeth that looks a lot like a gear, but it is made to hook into a chain or a track.
If you look on a bicycle you will see a chain hooked to a wheel with teeth.
When you move the pedals it turns the wheel, which moves the chain, which turns the bike wheels and makes it go.
The wheel with teeth hooked to your pedals is a sprocket.

Sprockets are also used in things like tanks, or in other big machines.

(from: wikipedia - sprocket)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Gyroscope

Wednesday, July 24, 2019


We just learned about the Portuguese Man o' War that looks like a jellyfish but is a hydrozoan.

Another type of hydrozoan is the Velella, also called the sea raft, by-the-wind sailor, purple sail or little sail.

These are small blue animals that float along the top of the water, and have what looks like a little sail on top of their body.

The sail catches the wind and helps these animals move along the water.

They are very small, only about two and a half inches.
Just like other hydrozoans, they are actually a bunch of small animals all stuck together.
They use small tentacles to catch things like plankton with stingers and then eat them up.

The stingers don't hurt humans, but might make their skin itch a little.

(from: wikipedia - velella)

Mass stranding Velella velella on Menorca May 2013 - JNJPO

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Ammonoidea

Tuesday, July 23, 2019


We just learned about the Parotid Gland.

Another part of the mouth is the Tonsils.

Usually when people talk about tonsils they mean the two lumps at the back of the throat.
There is one on the left and one on the right.

The big long name for these is the palatine tonsils or faucial tonsils.

There are actually three types of tonsils:
- Palatine tonsils - At the back of the throat
- Tubal tonsils - Behind the throat and almost back by the ear
- Adenoids, also called the pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil - Up the back of the throat and behind the nose

These tonsils have special tissues in them that help fight against sickness and germs.

(from: wikipedia - palatine tonsil)

(from: wikipedia - tobal tonsil)

(from: wikipedia - adenoid)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Supernumary Teeth

Monday, July 22, 2019

Butter Churn Tower

We just learned about the Outworks.

Another type of a castle part is the Butter Churn Tower.

This is a tower that has an upper and lower defensive wall.

It gets its name because it looks kind of like a butter churn.

(from: wikipedia - butter-churn tower)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mehrangarh

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Christianity in Armenia

We just learned about the First Council of Nicea where people met to talk about what the truth was about Jesus.

Another part of early Christianity was Christianity in Armenia.

In the year 301 there was a religious person named Gregory the Illuminator who grew up learning about Christianity.
When he was older he talked to the King of Armenia named Tiridates III about Christianity, and the King decided to become Christian too.

Gregory baptised Tiridates III, and then the King decided to make Christianity the official religion in the country of Armenia.

(from: wikipedia - gregory the illuminator)

(from: wikipedia - tiridates iii of armenia)

(from: wikipedia - tiridates iii of armenia)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Stachys - Bishop of Byzantium

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Obelisk of Axum

We just learned about the Akan Goldweights used as measurements for gold, and to tell stories.

Another ancient African sculpture is the Obelisk of Axum, made some time around 300 AD in Ethiopia.

A very long time ago in Ethiopia when important people died, they would build towers above where they were buried.
The town of Axum where this tower was built has earthquakes sometimes, so most of the towers like this fell down and broke.

During a war, people from another country took this giant obelisk as a war trophy, and then about 50 years later it was finally brought back to Ethiopia and put back together.

The obelisk has carvings of doors and windows on it, and it is also sometimes called a stele or hawelt/hawelti.

(from: wikipedia - obelisk of axum)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Li Gui

Friday, July 19, 2019

Norwegian - Counting to Twenty Nine

We counted to 20 in Norwegian, let's keep going!

21 tjueen - sounds like choo-eh eh-ah-n
22 tjueto - sounds likechoo-eh toh
23 tjue-tre - sounds like choo-eh t-deh
24 tjuefire - sounds like choo-eh fee-dah
25 tjuefem - sounds like choo-eh fem
26 tjueseks - sounds like choo-eh seh-ks
27 tjuesju - sounds like choo-eh shoo
28 tjue åtte - sounds like choo-eh aw-teh
29 tjue ni - sounds like ni choo-eh nee

norwegian language
(from: wikipedia - norwegian language)

Greek: είκοσι ένα (eíkosi éna), είκοσι δύο (eíkosi dýo), είκοσι τρεις (eíkosi treis), είκοσι τέσσερις (eíkosi tésseris), είκοσι πέντε (eíkosi pénte), είκοσι έξι (eíkosi éxi), είκοσι επτά (eíkosi eptá), είκοσι οκτώ (eíkosi októ), είκοσι εννέα (eíkosi ennéa)

ASL: twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-nine

Italian: ventuno, ventidue, ventitré, ventiquattro, venticinque, ventisei, ventisette, ventotto, ventinove

German: einundzwanzig, zweiundzwanzig, dreiundzwanzig, vierundzwanzig, fünfundzwanzig, sechsundzwanzig, siebenundzwanzig, achtundzwanzig, neunundzwanzig

Spanish: veintiún, veintidós, veintitrés, veinticuatro, veinticinco, veintiséis, veintisiete, veintiocho, veintinueve

French: vingt et un, vingt-deux, vingt-trois, vingt-quatre, vingt-cinc, vingt-six, vingt-sept, vingt-huit, vingt-neuf

Thursday, July 18, 2019


We just learned about the Motor or engine that makes things move.

One very important part of most engines is the Gear.

Gears are wheels that have teeth on the end, and usually a hole in the middle.
The teeth on the end can match up with other gears that also have teeth.
So when one gear moves, it also turns the other gear.

If there is a big wide gear that is moving very slow, it can be hooked to a small gear that will spin very fast.
Or it can be hooked to a gear that is sideways, to change the direction of the movement.

Gears are in everything from car motors to clocks to bicycles.
Pretty much everything with moving parts uses at least one gear to help control the movement made by the energy!

The teeth on gears are called "cogs", and gears are sometimes called cogwheels.
Sometimes people will even refer to themselves as a "cog in the machine" meaning that they are just one part of a bigger machine that makes things work.

(from: wikipedia - gear)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rockets - Star Tracker

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Portuguese Man o' War

We just learned about the Blue Button hydrozoan that looks like a jellyfish.

Another animal that looks like a jellyfish but isn't, is the Portuguese Man o' War, also called the pyhsalia physalis or blue bottle.

Just like the blue button, this is a hydrozoan.
The Man o' War has a very powerful venomous sting, and can kill fish or even humans!

They live on top of the water, floating along the surface with the stingers underneath.
The blowing wind and moving water moves these animals along, as they don't have any way to swim.

Sometimes the tentacles of these animals will fall off and go floating off in the water, but they can still sting someone.
Even if these animals float up onto a beach they can still sting.

Usually a sting from the man o' war is like a mark from a whip, and can sometimes cause people to have trouble breathing.

Because they are so dangerous, usually if they are found on a beach it will be closed until they go away.

(from: wikipedia - portuguese man o' war)

Portuguese Man-of-War | World's Weirdest - Nat Geo WILD

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cephalopods - Flapjack Octopus

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Parotid Gland

We just learned about the Labial Commissure of the Mouth where your upper and lower lips meet.

Another part of the mouth is the Parotid Gland.

This is the part of the body that makes saliva or spit and sends it out to the parts of the mouth that need it.

(from: wikipedia - parotid glad)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mouth - Wisdom Tooth

Monday, July 15, 2019


We just learned about the part of a castle called the Roundel.

Another part of castle buildings are Outworks.

These are extra things built on the outside of the castle to help defend it.

There are a lot of different types of outworks:

ravelin - A triangular shaped wall outside the main wall of a castle

(from: wikipedia - ravelin)

tenaille - A v shaped wall that looks like a pair of pincers out in front of another wall

(from: wikipedia - tenaille)

lunette - A half moon shaped wall outside of the castle walls

(from: wikipedia - lunette (fortification))

There are other types of outworks like flèches, caponiers and more!
People really worked hard to come up with ways to protect the walls of their castles.

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Blarney Castle

Sunday, July 14, 2019

First Council of Nicea

We just learned about the story called The Golden Legend.

Another part of early Christianity was the First Council of Nicea.

As Christianity was spreading all over the world, some people were arguing over what the meanings were of different parts of the teachings of Jesus and the Bible.

One of the biggest things people fought about was whether God the father was really Jesus' father or whether Jesus was as powerful as God the father.

A few hundred church leaders were all invited to come together and figure out what the right answer was, to a place called Nicea.

After they talked, they wrote up the Nice Creed, a way for people to remember what the real truth was.
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the only-begotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God,] Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father By whom all things were made [both in heaven and on earth]
Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down and was incarnate and was made man
He suffered, and the third day he rose again, ascended into heaven
From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.
And in the Holy Ghost.

(from: wikipedia - first council of nicea)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Urban - Bishop of Macedonia

Saturday, July 13, 2019

Akan Goldweights

We just learned about the Burkina Faso Masks.

Another work of African sculpture is the Akan Goldweights, made around 1400 AD in West Africa.

These are sculptures that were used as weights to measure how much gold someone was trading.
Each sculpture had a different weight, so if someone had found some gold and wanted to trade it in, they would use different weights to figure out how much money it was all worth.

The weights were made as different shapes to tell stories about the Akan people of West Africa.
Each shape had different meanings, like a shield might tell a story about bravery, or swords with two sharp edges might mean that two people were working together for peace.

There are many of these old gold weights in the world in museums, and people even today make them as souvenirs or gifts to keep as a reminder of the past.

(from: wikipedia - akan goldweights)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Flying Horse of Gansu