Sunday, October 25, 2020


We just learned about the Fall of Constantinople.

Another part of early Christianity was Devshirme.

Many times in history Christians and Hebrews were not treated very well.
In Egypt during Moses time they were slaves, and when Jesus was alive they were not treated well by the Roman empire.
When Emperor Constantine came around, things were very good for Christians for about 1,000 years.

After the fall of Constantinople, some Christians started being mistreated again by the people that were the new Ottoman rulers in the east.

One sad thing that happened is that Christian boys from the ages of 8 to 20 were taken away from their parents and made to work in the army for the Ottomans.

They were not killed or tortured, but they were told that they could not be Christian anymore.
These kids were put into school and could even become rulers in the land, like the Grand Vizier the second most powerful person in a land.

Even though they weren't killed many families were very sad that their kids were taken away.

(from: wikipedia - )

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Leo and Attilla

Saturday, October 24, 2020

Prometheus - Manship

We just learned about the Vision of Peace by Carl Milles.

Another famous American sculpture is Prometheus by Paul Manship in New York in 1934.

In the 1920s in America, some sculptors started making statues that were a lot like the very old Greek statues in the art style called Classical Art.

Paul Manship was born in Minnesota in 1885 and grew up learning to be an artist.
When he was 24 he won an art competition and got a trip to to go Rome Italy.
While he was there he really learned to like the old Classical style, and when he came back to America he started making statues like he saw in Europe.

The Prometheus sculpture is made of bronze, and it is in New York at the famous Rockefeller Center.
It is 18 feet tall and weighs 8 tons.
Prometheus is a Titan from Greek mythology who brought fire to people by stealing it from the sun.
In this sculpture it has a big ring around Prometheus that he is falling through toward the earth.

On the wall behind the statue are the words: "Prometheus, teacher in every art, brought the fire that hath proved to mortals a means to mighty ends."

(from: wikipedia - prometheus (manship))

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Toltec Atlantean figures from Tula

Friday, October 23, 2020

Swahili - Good Morning

We just learned a few ways to say hello and goodbye in Swahili, like Habari, Mambo, or Shikamoo.

Sometimes you might want to say good morning, good afternoon, or good night.

Habari is a way to say hello that means "How is the news", Za means "for", and Asubuhi means "morning".
So sometimes to say good morning people will say Habari za asubuhi, which really means "How is the news for morning".

Good Morning - Habari za asubuhi - sounds like hah-bah-ree zah ah-soo-boo-hee 文A

Good Day - Habari za mchana - sounds like hah-bah-ree zah m-chah-nah 文A

Good Evening - Habari za jioni - sounds like hah-bah-ree zah jee-oh-nee 文A

Good Night - Habari za usiku - sounds like hah-bah-ree zah oo-see-koo 文A

(from: wikipedia - swahili language)

Russian: Доброе утро (Dobroye utro), Добрый день (Dobryy den), Добрый вечер (Dobryy vecher), Доброй ночи (Dobroy nochi)

Norwegian: God morgen, God dag, God ettermiddag, God kveld, God natt

Greek: Καλημέρα (Kaliméra), Καλησπέρα (Kalispéra), Καληνυχτα (Kalinychta)

ASL: Good Morning, Good Day, Good Evening, Good Night

Italian: buongiorno, buon pomeriggio, buonasera, buona notte

German: Guten Morgen, Guten Tag, Guten Abend, Gute Nacht

Spanish: Buenos días, buenos tardes, buenas noches

French: bonjour, bonsoir, bonne nuit

Thursday, October 22, 2020

Locomotive Piston

We just learned about the Piston Rod.

Another part of the Locomotive is the Piston.

This is the thing that pushes and pulls the piston rod, using the power of the steam.

Remember we've learned about how hot steam pushes out, and then cooling the steam makes a vaccuum that pulls or sucks in.
- The pushing and pulling of the steam and vaccuum is pushes and pulls this piston
- The piston pushes and pulls the piston rod
- The piston rod pushes and pulls the connecting rod
- The connecting rod spins the train wheel around

(from: wikipedia - piston)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Cam

Wednesday, October 21, 2020

Siamese Cat

We just learned about the Tabby Cat.

Another type of cat is the Siamese Cat.

This type of cat first came from the Asian country of Thailand. This country used to be called Siam, so that is why it is called the Siamese cat.

These cats have blue eyes, big ears, a skinny body.
Most of the time when people think of Siamese cats they picture the white fur on their body and then brown black fur on their face, ears or legs.

Siamese cats can actually have different colored fur at any part of their body, but they are most often white with brown points.

(from: wikipedia - siamese cat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Tentacles

Tuesday, October 20, 2020

T Cells

We just learned about NK Cells.

Another type of lymphocyte is T Cells.

We are looking at:
- the type of blood cells called white blood cells,
- the type of white blood cells called lymphocytes
- the type of lymphocytes called T Cells.

These cells are called T Cells because they are usually found in a part of the body called the thymus, which is right in the middle of your chest behind your sternum.

All white blood cells are made in the bone marrow, but after these T Cells leave the bone marrow they go to the thymus.

T Cells are kind of like NK Cells as they go kill bad viruses that attack your body, but the T Cells are special because they are made to only attack certain types of viruses, where as the NK Cells attack everything.

When the T Cells go to the thymus, the thymus sorts them out and figures out which ones are set up to fight the right kinds of viruses that the body wants to fight, and then if a T Cell is not needed it is thrown away.

The T Cells are sort of like specialized attack soldiers waiting for certain viruses to show up and then they attack.

(from: wikipedia - t cell)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Fibrous Tunic

Monday, October 19, 2020

Thurston Island

We just learned about Berkner Island.

Another island in Antarctica is Thurston Island.

This is the third smallest Antarctic island after Alexander Island and Berkner Island.

It is 134 miles long and 56 miles wide.

Up until 1960 people thought this island was actually connected to the main part of Antarctica, which would make it a peninsula, but they later discovered it was actually an island, just surrounded by ice.

(from: wikipedia - thurston island)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Dragon's Teeth

Sunday, October 18, 2020

Fall of Constantinople

We just learned about Joan of Arc.

Another part of early Christianity was the Fall of Constantinople.

Back in the year 313 the emperor Constantine made himself a home city of Constantinople, in eastern Europe.
For a long time it was the strongest city in the area, and was the head of the Roman empire.

Later on the eastern and western parts of Europe started arguing over how the church should be run, and about whether the head of the church should be in Rome, Paris or Constaninople.

When that happened, and Constantinople had other problems like fighting off plagues, it was not the strongest city anymore.

In the middle eastern countries the Ottoman Empire was getting very strong, and so they started a war to take over Constantinople.
The western European countries did not come to help Constantinople, so the Ottomans took over Constantinople easily, and also because they were using gunpowder and cannons.

(from: wikipedia - fall of constaninople)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Saint Patrick

Saturday, October 17, 2020

Vision of Peace - Carl Milles

We just learned about the statue of Georgia O'Keefe by Gaston Lachaise.

Another famous American sculpture is the Vision of Peace by Carl Milles made in Minnesota in 1936.

This statue was made to remember the people from Minnesota who died in World War I.

At the bottom of the statue are 5 Native Americans sitting around a fire, and in the middle in the smoke coming up from the fire is a Native American God of Peace.
It wasn't made just for Native Americans, but for the whole world.

The statue is 38 feet high, and made of onyx.
It is on top of a moving base at the bottom that slowly spins the statue around about 1 time every few hours.

Carl Milles was born in Sweden in 1875, and became a famous artist working there until he was 56.
In 1931 he moved to Michigan to be part of the Cranbrook school, and made many sculptures for the school grounds.
He made many other sculptures in Michigan and other parts of the midwest like Minnesota and Wisconsin.

(from: wikipedia - carl milles)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Montezuma's Headdress

Friday, October 16, 2020

Swahili - Hello and Goodbye

We've now learned a whole year of Russian!

Let's try another language now, how about Swahili?

This is the language millions of people speak in different countries across the continent of Africa, like Burundi, Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

Let's learn how to say hello and goodbye in Swahili!
There are a few ways to say Hello, Hi or What's up.

These words aren't used much anymore, but they mean Hello:
Jambo - Sounds like jah-m-boh 文A
Hujambo - Sounds like hoo-jah-m-boh 文A

Just like in English a lot of times we say things like What's Up to say Hi, Swahili has the same kind of things.
What's News? - Habari - Sounds like hah-bah-ree 文A
How's it going? - Mambo - Sounds like mah-m-boh 文A

If you are going to say hello to an older person or someone who is in charge like a teacher or a police officer, you use this word which means something like Greetings.
Shikamoo - Sounds like sh-ih-kah-moo 文A

(from: wikipedia - swahili language)

Russian: Привет (privet), Здравствуй (Zdravstvuy), Пока (poka), до свидания (do svidaniya)

Norwegian: Hei, Hallo, Ha det, Ha det brah

Greek: Γειά σου (Geiá sou), Χαίρετε (Chairete), Αντίο (Antío)

ASL: Hello and Goodbye

Italian: Ciao, arrivederci

German: Hallo, Auf Wiedersehen

Spanish: Hola! Adiós!

French: Bonjour! Au Revoir!

Thursday, October 15, 2020

Piston Rod

We just learned about the Connecting Rod.

Another part of a steam locomotive is the Piston Rod.

This is the big straight metal rod that is connected to the piston that goes up and down with the steam and vaccuum.

The piston rod is connected to other metal rods that help turn wheels and make the engine go, but the piston just goes straight back and forth and does not turn around at all.

(from: wikipedia - piston rod)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Linear Actuator

Wednesday, October 14, 2020

Tabby Cat

We just learned about the Calico Cat.

Another type of cat is a Tabby Cat.

Just like the calico, tabby isn't a type of cat breed, it is just a type of fur style that can be on just about any breed of domestic cat.

A tabby cat is any cat that has an M shaped mark on their forehead, and stripes on its body.

(from: wikipedia - tabby cat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Oral Arms

Tuesday, October 13, 2020

NK Cells

We just learned about the type of white blood cell called a Lymphocyte.

There are a few types of lymphocytes, like the NK Cells, also called Natural Killer Cells or large granular lymphocytes (LGL).

These cells float around in the body, and if they find a cell that doesn't look like it's supposed to be part of the body then it lets out some chemicals called cytokines that will destroy the bad cell.

The bad cells might be like a tumor, an infection or a virus, and when the NK Cell releases it's cytokins and the bad cell will be destroyed.
Because these LGLs kill other bad cells they are called natural killers.

(from: wikipedia - natural killer cell)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Aqueous Humour

Monday, October 12, 2020

Berkner Island

We just learned about the largest island in Antarctica, Alexander Island.

The second largest island is Berkner Island.

This island is about 200 miles by 100 miles, and 17,000 square miles, bigger than the US state of Maryland.

Even though it is an island, the rock part of the island is below the water, and on top of the rock is a big bunch of ice that makes up the island.
If all of the ice melted, the island would be under water.

During the cold parts of the year the island is surrounded by ice, so it doesn't always look like an island.

(from: wikipedia - berkner island)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Witch Tower

Sunday, October 11, 2020

Joan of Arc

We just learned about the Avignon Papacy.

Another part of early Christianity is the famous French person Joan of Arc.

She was born in France in 1412, while there was a war going on between France and England.

When she was 13 she said that she had a vision of some Christian saints, who told her she needed to go help King Charles VII of France to win the war.

At first no one believed her, but she begged over and over again to go see the king.

When she was 17 she finally got to see the king, and he let her go to some of the battles and try to help out.
Wherever she was at the French won their battles easily, so people started believing that she was a sign from God that they could win the war.

She wasn't really a fighter who carried a sword, she usually had a banner that she waved around to try and help get all the French soldiers excited about winning.

When she was 19 she was captured by the English soldiers, and they had a trial where they said she was bad and wasn't talking to Christian saints but was working for the devil, and they had her killed.

Years later the French people said that trial was not fair and said she was innocent, and the church leaders agreed so she became a Christian hero Saint Joan of Arc.

Her story is very famous in France and people have even found the house where she grew up and turned it into a museum.

(from: wikipedia - joan of arc)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mariology

Saturday, October 10, 2020

Georgia O'Keefe - Gaston Lachaise

We just learned about the Two Circus Women - Nadelman.

Another famous work of American art is the sculpture of Georgia O'Keefe made by Gaston Lachaise in 1927.

Lachaise was born in 1882 in France, where he grew up learning how to be a sculptor.
He met an American woman named Isabel and fell in love with her, so when he was about 20 years old he moved to America with her and they got married.

He was mostly famous for making sculptures of women that looked very big and powerful, like a force of nature.
Most people made sculptures of women that were very small and delicate, so this different way of making sculptures of women was seen as a way to give power to women who were seen by some people as weak.

He also made sculptures of famous people like Georgia O'Keefe.
She was a famous American artist, who some people called the Mother of American modernism.

(from: wikipedia - gaston lachaise)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Teocalli of Sacred War

Friday, October 9, 2020

Russian - Vegetables

We just learned how to say some fruits to drink in Russian.

Let's learn how to say some vegetables.

carrot морковь (morkov') - sounds like moh-dr-koh-v 文A

corn кукуруза (kukuruza) - sounds like koo-koo-roo-zah 文A

pea горох (gorokh) - sounds like goh-droh-k 文A

russian language
(from: wikipedia - russian academy of sciences)

Norwegian: gulrot, mais, erter

Greek: καρότο (karóto), καλαμπόκι (kalampóki), μπιζέλι (bizéli)

ASL: carrot, corn, pea

Italian: carote, mais, piselli

German: Karotte, Mais, Erbse

Spanish: zanahoria, maíz, guisante

French: carotte, maïs, pois

Thursday, October 8, 2020

Connecting Rod

We just learned about the Coupling Rod that hooks all the wheels together.

Another part of a steam locomotive is the Connecting Rod.

Remember that we learned about how steam pressure works with a steam cylinder to push and pull a piece of metal in a tube called a piston.

The piston is hooked up to the connecting rod, which takes that forward and back pushing an pulling and makes it into a circular push and pull to spin the locomotive's wheel around.

(from: wikipedia - connecting rod)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Rack and Pinion

Wednesday, October 7, 2020

Calico Cat

We just learned about the Napoleon Cat.

Another type of cat is the Calico Cat.

This type of cat has fur with three different colors, usually white, orange, and black.

There are a bunch of different types of cats that sometimes have this type of fur, like the American Shorthair, the Persian Cat, or the Japanese Bobtail.

Calico is just a way to describe the type of fur a cat has, it is not an actual type of cat like Napoleon Cat.

One interesting thing about these types of cats, is that they are almost always girl cats!
It is very rare for boy cats to have calico three color patched fur.

(from: wikipedia - calico cat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Manubrium

Tuesday, October 6, 2020


We just learned that there are three types of blood cells, white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.

Let's learn a little more about the white blood cells.
There are 5 different types of white blood cells!

One of the types of white blood cells is called a Lymphocyte.

Remember we learned that lymph is a white liquid carried in the lymph capillaries and then the lymphatic vessels, and the lymph nodes help clean out all the bad stuff in the lymph.

Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells that help fight off bad diseases, and in the white lymph liquid there is more of this type of cell than any of the other ones.

There are 3 different types of lymphocytes: T cells, B cells and NK (natural killer) cells and they each have a different job to help fight the bad diseases that attack the body.

(from: wikipedia - lymphocyte)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Vitreous Body

Monday, October 5, 2020

Alexander Island

We just learned about the Cirque Glacier.

Another part of Antarctica is Alexander Island.

This is the biggest island on Antarctica, and it is the second largest island in the world that no one lives on, just after Devon Island which is up by the north pole.

It is about 240 miles long, and 50 miles wide.
That is bigger than each of the US states of Rhode Island, Deleware, Connecticut, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Hawaii.

Even though it is an island, most of the time it is connected by ice to the rest of Antarctica, so it doesn't always look like an island.

(from: wikipedia - alexander island)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Trou de Loup

Sunday, October 4, 2020

Avignon Papacy

We just learned about the Mirabilia Descripta.

Another part of early Christianity is the Avignon Papacy.

Remember that there were church leaders in all the different countries called Bishops, and that the Bishop in Rome - Italy was supposed to be the leader of all the other Bishops, called the Pope.

In the early 1300s, the king of France was very powerful, and helped a French person get elected as the Pope.
But to make France more powerful, he wanted him to live in the city of Avignon instead of Rome.

So in 1305 this Pope and the 6 popes after him all lived in Rome and were the heads of all the other churches.
It made the people in the city of Rome angry because they believed they were the most important city, and also having the Pope live in your city means you get a lot of power and money that they didn't get anymore.

After 74 years in 1379 AD the new Pope moved back to Rome.

(from: wikipedia - avignon papacy)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Saint Augustine of Hippo

Saturday, October 3, 2020

Richard Yates - Albin Polasek

We just learned about the Two Circus Women by Nadelman.

Another famous American sculpture is Richard Yates by Albin Polasek made in Springfield Illinois in 1923.

Richard Yates was the Governor of Illinois in 1860.
Before the Civil War he said he did not like slavery, and helped get soldiers to fight with the north in the Civil War against slavery.

Abraham Lincoln was also from Illinois, and he was friends with Richard Yates.

The sculptor Albin Polasek was born in 1879 in the Czech Republic.
When he was 22 years old in 1901 he moved to Pennsylvania to try and get a good job and make money.

(from: wikipedia - albin polasek)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: The Wrestler

Friday, October 2, 2020

Russian - Fruits

We just learned how to say some things to drink in Russian.

Let's learn how to say some fruits.

apple яблоко (yabloko) - sounds like yah-bloh-kah 文A

orange апельсин (apel'sin) - sounds like ah-pel-seen 文A

banana банан (banan) - sounds like bah-nah-n 文A

russian language
(from: wikipedia - russian academy of sciences)

Norwegian: eple, appelsin, banan

Greek: μήλο (mílo), πορτοκάλι (portokáli), μπανάνα (banána)

ASL: apple, orange, banana

Italian: mela, orange, banana

German: Apfel, Orange, Banane

Spanish: manzana, naranja, banana

French: pomme, orange, banane

Thursday, October 1, 2020

Coupling Rod

We just learned about the Brake Shoe.

Another part of a steam locomotive is a Coupling Rod or Side Rod.

When the steam engine uses its power to turn the wheel of a steam locomotive, it is usually only turning one wheel.
That wheel is connected to the other wheels by a big metal rod called the coupling rod.

So when the driving wheel is turned, it makes all the wheels turn and spin at the same speed so it makes the train more stable and gives it more power.

(from: wikipedia - coupling rod)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Air Gap

Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Napolean Cat

We just learned about the Domestic Cat.

One type of domestic cat is a Napolean Cat or Minuet.

This is a cat with a normal sized body, but with short legs.

Even though they have short legs, they can still run jump and play just like any other cat.

(from: wikipedia - minuet cat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Gastrodermis

Tuesday, September 29, 2020


We just learned about the Red Blood Cell and the White Blood Cell.

The third type of blood cell is the Platelet, also called thrombocytes.

The name thrombocyte comes from the Greek words θρόμβος (thrombos) which means clot, and κύτος (kytos) which means cell.
Platelets get carried around in the veins and arteries, and if they see that there is some damage to the body, like a hole in the vein or artery then they will try and patch up the hole.

A bunch of platelets will work to connect to each other, and when they work to block up a hole like this it is called a clot.

So when you have a cut and are bleeding, the platelets come and make a blood clot and help fix up the cut.

(from: wikipedia - platelet)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Macula

Monday, September 28, 2020

Cirque Glacier

We just learned about the Piedmont Glacier.

Another kind of glacier is a Cirque Glacier.

This kind of glacier drains into a bowl shaped valley.

(from: wikipedia - cirque glacier)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Abatis

Sunday, September 27, 2020

Mirabilia Descripta

We just learned about the first English Bible, Wycliffe's Bible.

Another part of early Christianity from around the 1300s is the book Mirabilia Descripta.

When a Christian person named Jordanus of Severac went to India to explore and see what people believed in, he ran into some trouble, and was put into prison.

Later on he was let out, and traveled all over India writing about the way people lived, what they believed in, and all about the land and country.

He wrote it into a book he called Mirabilia Descripta which means something like Diary of Marvels.
His book was so well written at the time it was better than any other explorer from the west who traveled to India.

Because he wrote so well about it, other Christians were able to travel to India and help tell people about God and Jesus.

(from: wikipedia - jordanus)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Saint Ninian in Scotland

Saturday, September 26, 2020

Two Circus Women - Nadelman

We just learned about the Detroit Zoo's Rackham Fountain by Parducci.

Another famous American Sculpture is Two Circus Women by Elie Nadelman in New York in 1930.

In America in the 1900s a lot of sculptors came from Europe to get away from World War I, and to try and earn money by making sculptures.

Eli Nadelman was born in Poland in 1882, and became a famous sculptor there, even meeting with famous artists like Picasso.

In 1914 he left Poland and moved to America to get away from the war, and made many famous sculptures.
He also collected sculptures from other artists and made his own Museum of Folk Arts in Riverdale New York.

When the Great Depression hit, he had a very hard time making money, and when he had to sell his Museum and art studio many of his sculptures were destroyed.

A while after his death his art was rediscovered and many of his sculptures have been copied and remade around the country.

His sculpture of Two Circus Women was made in 1930, out of paper mache over plaster.
Plaster is kind of like cement, and paper mache is like paper covered in glue that is stuck on top of the plaster to decorate it.

Nadelman tried to make the circus performers look big and round, but not with very clear scultpure of their face.
It was not a very famous statue at the time, but later on it was copied and remade into a big marble statue and put at the famous New York State Theater.

(from: wikipedia - elie nadelman)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Were Jaguar Sculpture

Friday, September 25, 2020

Russian - Drinks

We counted to 900 in Russian! Wow!

Let's learn how to say some things to drink.

water вода (voda) - sounds like vah-dah 文A

milk молоко (moloko) - sounds like moh-loh-koh 文A

juice сок (sok) - sounds like soh-k 文A

russian language
(from: wikipedia - russian academy of sciences)

Norwegian: vann, melk, juice

Greek: water νερό (neró), milk γάλα (gála), juice χυμό (chymó)

ASL: water, milk, juice

Italian: acqua, latte, succo

German: Wasser, Milch, Saft

Spanish: agua, leche, jugo

French: eau, lait, jus

Thursday, September 24, 2020

Brake Shoe

We just learned about the Trailing Wheel.

Another part of a steam locomotive is the Brake Shoe.

When the train has to stop, there is a rounded piece of metal called the brake shoe that is pushed against the wheels to try and slow them down.

The scraping of the brake shoes on the metal wheel also helps clean the wheels, and after a while the brake shoes get worn down and need to be replaced with new ones.

(from: wikipedia - brake shoe)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Electromagnet

Wednesday, September 23, 2020

Domestic Cat

We just learned about the European Wildcat.

Another type of cat is the Domestic Cat, also called felis catus.

Domestic means being friendly in a house.
Cats have been friends and helpers to humans for thousands of years!

Scientists think cats and people first became friends because cats would help catch mice and rats that were pests in the house, and because they were friendly and liked to be petted and played with.

Just like there are a bunch of types of dogs out there, some people have named about 60 different types of cats.
Some types are like tabby, siamese or kinkalow!

There are are about 95 million pet cats in the USA.

(from: wikipedia - cat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Mesoglea

Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Red Blood Cell

We just learned about the White Blood Cell.

Another type of blood cell is the Red Blood Cell, also called RBC, red cell, red blood corpuscle, haematid, erythroid cell, or erythrocyte.

Most of the weird science names come from other languages, like corpuscle comes from the Latin word "corpus" for body, haematid comes from the Greek word "hema" for blood, and erythrocyte comes from the Greek words "erythros" for red plus "kytos" for hollow vessel.

Remember there are three types of blood cells: White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells, Platelets.

There are more red blood cells than the other two type of blood cells, with TRILLIONS of RBCs in the body.

The job of these blood cells is to take oxygen from the lungs to the body, going along the veins and arteries of the circulatory system.

They are shaped a little like a frisbee or a bowl, and they don't have a middle part called a nucleus like most other cells.
Just like the white blood cells, these are made in the bone marrow, and a grown up person makes over 2 million of these RBCs per second!
They go around the body and do their job for about 4 months, and then they get recycled back into the body and replaced by new ones.

(from: wikipedia - red blood cell)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Sclera

Monday, September 21, 2020

Piedmont Glacier

We just learned about what a Fjord is.

Another type of Glacier is a Piedmont Glacier.

Just like the other glaciers, when these melt the land around it can make them into a different shape.

If the valley where the glacier flows is a low flat plain, then it spreads out and looks sort of like a seashell or fan shape.

(from: wikipedia - glacier morphology)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Fujian Tulou

Sunday, September 20, 2020

Wycliffe's Bible

We just learned about the Divine Comedy - Paradiso.

Another part of early Christianity is Wycliffe's Bible.

When people found the old writings and letters that make up the Bible, they were in different languages like Hebrew, Greek or Aramaic.

The church put all of these together and translated them into Latin, and some other languages like Greek or Cyrillic.

The first time the Bible was written in English was when a priest named John Wycliffe worked to translate the whole Bible into English in 1395.

Wycliffe believed that people needed to be able to read the Bible in their own language, and not many people could speak or read Latin to understand the Bible readings in church.

(from: wikipedia - wycliffe's bible)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Latin Vulgate Bible

Saturday, September 19, 2020

Detroit Zoo Rackham Fountain - Parducci

We just learned about the National Shrine of the Little Flower by Chambellan.

Another famous American Sculputre is the Detroit Zoo Rackham Fountain by Corrado Parducci.

Corrado Parducci was born in Italy in 1900, and moved to the USA when he was 4 years old.

When he was young he went to art school, and at 17 he started working as an architectural sculptor.

There was a famous architect in Detroit named Albert Kahn who liked his art so much he asked him to come to Detroit, where he made some famous sculptures like the art on the Guardian Building in Detroit.

He also made other sculptures, like the Rackham Memorial Fountain in the Detroit Zoo.

When Parducci first came to Detroit, he only planned on staying for work for a little while, but because Detroit was so busy and successful he moved his whole family to Detroit and spent the rest of his life making sculptures all over hundreds of buildings in Michigan.

(from: wikipedia - detroit zoo)

(from: wikipedia - corrado parducci)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Aztec Sun Stone

Friday, September 18, 2020

Russian - Nine Hundred

We counted to 100 in Russian, let's keep going!

200 двести (dvesti) - sounds like d-veh-stee 文A

300 триста (trista) - sounds like t-dee-stah 文A

400 четыреста (chetyresta) - sounds like ch-eh-tee-dreh-stah 文A

500 пятьсот (pyat'sot) - sounds like pyat-soh-t 文A

600 Сшестьсотто (shest'sot) - sounds like sh-eh-st-soh-t 文A

700 семьсот (sem'sot) - sounds like sem-soh-t 文A

800 восемьсот (vosem'sot) - sounds like voh-sem-soh-t 文A

900 девятьсот (devyat'sot) - sounds like deh-v-yah-t-soh-t 文A

And here are some of the even bigger numbers!

And here are some of the even bigger numbers!

one thousand тысяча (tysyacha) - sounds like tee-s-yah-chah

one million один миллион (odin million) - sounds like oh-dee-n mee-lee-oh-n

one billion один миллиард (odin milliard) - sounds like oh-dee-n mee-lee-a-rd

one trillion один триллион (odin trillion) - sounds like oh-dee-n t-dee-lee-oh-n

one google один гугл (odin gugl) - sounds like oh-dee-n goo-ghel

russian language
(from: wikipedia - russian academy of sciences)

Norwegian: to hundre, tre hundre, fire hundre, fam hundre, seks hundre, syv hundre, åtte hundre, ni hundre

Greek: διακόσια (diakósia), τριακόσια (triakósia), τετρακόσια (tetrakósia), πεντακόσια (pentakósia), εξακόσια (exakósia), επτακόσια (eptakósia), οκτακόσια (oktakósia), εννιακόσια (enniakósia)

ASL: two hundred, three hundred, four hundred, five hundred, six hundred, seven hundred, eight hundred, nine hundred

Italian: duecento, trecento, quattrocento, cinquecento, seicento, settecento, ottocento, novecento

German: zweihundert, dreihundert, vierhundert, fünfhundert, sechshundert, siebenhundert, achthundert, neunhundert

Spanish: doscientos, trescientos, cuatrocientos, quinientos, seiscientos, sietecientos, ochocientos, novecientos

French: deux cent, trois cent, quatre cent, cinq cent, six cent, sept cent, huit cent, neuf cent

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Trailing Wheel

We just learned about the Smokebox at the front of the engine.

Another part of a steam locomotive is the Trailing Wheel.

Back behind all of the other big wheels that move the train is a smaller wheel.
This wheel has an axle bar going under the train that helps make the engine more stable especially where the fireman and engineer are standing.

Because it is not connected to any of the other gears that move the train along, this wheel is very strong and doesn't wiggle around so much.

(from: wikipedia - trailing wheel)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Windings

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

European Wildcat

We just learned about the African Wildcat.

Another type of wild cat is the European Wildcat, also called felis silvestris.

This type of cat is brown and grey, with some dark stripes on its face, body and tail.
These cats are about 2 feet long, and weigh about 17 pounds.
They live mostly in forests and mountains of eastern europe.

They look a lot like a normal house cat, but they are usually bigger and thicker with longer fur.

Sylvester the Cat from the Looney Tunes cartoons was named after the science name for this cat, felis silvestris.

(from: wikipedia - european wildcat)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Jellyfish - Epidermis

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

White Blood Cell

We just learned that there are three types of Blood Cell red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Let's learn a little about White Blood Cells, also called WBCs, leukocytes or leucocytes.

These cells in the blood help fight against diseases or other bad things in the body.
This could be a type of virus or some kind of germs that got into the blood.

White blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
If there are a lot of white blood cells in the body, this can be a way for doctors to tell if someone is sick.
Looking at a liter of blood, if there are between 4,000 and 11,000 white blood cells then this is ok.
If there is a lot more or a lot less, then it is a sign the person is sick.

There are a lot of different types of white blood cells and they all have different jobs for fighting off anything that might be trying to hurt your body.

(from: wikipedia - white blood cell)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Optic Nerve

Monday, September 14, 2020


We just learned about the Valley Glacier.

Another type of glacier movement is a Fjord.

When a glacier is melting and the water helps dig a deep valley in the ground, this is called a fjord.
A fjord is narrow, and has steep walls on either side with water in the middle.

(from: wikipedia - fjord)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: Meurtrière

Sunday, September 13, 2020

Divine Comedy - Paradiso

We just learned about the Divine Comedy - Purgatorio.

Another part of the Divine Comedy book written in Early Christianity is Paradiso.

In this part of the story, Dante writes about what heaven might be like.

Long ago people didn't really know how the planets and stars worked, and a lot of people thought that the other planets and the sun went around the earth.
These days we know that the earth and other planets go around the sun, but in Dante's picture of heaven he thought the earth was the middle of our universe.

He wrote about 10 levels of heaven:
- Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Stars, Primum Mobile, Empyrean

Each higher level was better than the last one, and the Empyrean was the special holy perfect place where God lived.
The Primium Mobile was like a circle outside all of the planets that helped move the sun and stars, and this was where the angels lived.

Just like the other parts of this book, it was so popular that many people came to believe that this was what heaven really looked like.

(from: wikipedia - divine comedy)

Kid Facts - Blast from the past: The Great Persecution - Persia